The Islands of Japan (2012)
Japan locates in the east Asia, which surround by the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea and the North Pacific Ocean.
Japan consists of 6,852 islands and islets, including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, Habomai Islands, Take-shima (= Liancourt Rocks ; named by French), Senkaku Islands and four large Islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu).
Below fig.s are the outline of the islands, Japan.
Regarding the usage of alphabetical character of the island's name on these maps below and so on :
Regarding the island's name on the maps below, there might be other calling name in Japanese or a different local name.
There are some ways of how to express Japanese island's name written in kanji (Chinese character) in roman character.
About spelling : A pronunciation the word 'o' of part of island name, for example - Japanese pronounce ō as [ou] accent sound, so we sometimes write islands groupe name as 'shotō'.
But lack of a character code when making characteristic sign - 'ō' letter on the map, just like putting upper bar sign '-' to the letter 'o', so 'shotou' is used instead.
A grope of islands or a series of islands is called 'guntō' or 'rettō' or 'shotō' in Japanese. In fig.1 'shotou' instead of 'shotō', 'tou' instead of 'tō' is used.
In Japanese 'shima' and 'jima' and 'tō' all mean island or islet. Putting these words at the end of a certain island name, just like '~ -shima' or '~ -jima' or '~ -tō'.
Next explanation is 'Iō-tō' or 'Iwo-tō' or 'Iou-tou' or 'Ioh-toh'. Spelling is diferent, however, they are the same island. But on the map-fig.1 its expression is 'Iou-tou'.
Another example is a writing-style- 'ohshima'. The word 'oh' - its pronunciation [ou]. But this island's name in kanji word 'Ooshima',
the pronunciation of strict sound is double  accent sound - single  as is 'oil' - so pronounce  , however, our natural spoken sound can be heard like [:] or [ô] as a word 'all'.
In English sound, it doesn't seem that double   sound pronunciation is used. When the word 'oo' is shown to foreigner, double 'o' words like 'oozy' is pronounce [u:] or [ü].
So we spell 'Ohshima' or 'Oshima' for foreigner, instead of 'Ooshima'.
You can find that 'guntou' is usually used in nautical chart of Japan, instead of 'shotou' or 'rettou'. In this text I use this way of expression mainly like for example 'Ryukyu-shotou',
insted of 'Ryukyu-guntou' or 'Ryukyu-rettou'.
Japanese Territory :
Original lands of Japan are painted in dark brown and brown. (fig.1,fig.2,fig.3,fig.4,fig.5,fig.6)
But islands pointed by blue lines are occupied by Russia or South Korea. The former islands are called northern islands of Japan, "Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan and Habomai Islands",
which had been occupied by Soviet Union since World War II until Soviet collapsed in 1991. And since Soviet collapsed, Russia has occupied those islands - that is the territorial dispute between Japan and Russia.
The latter is "Take-shima Islets", actually two small rocks - which has been occupied by South Korea since around 1954.
fig.1 The Islands and Islets of Japan (whole area)
fig.2 The Islands and Islets of Japan (Hokkaido area)
fig.3 The Islands and Islets of Japan (southwest area)
Regarding the issue of territorial right of islands between Japan and Russia, Japan and South Korea, Japan and China.
World War II between Japan and the Allied Power, the Allied Powers' aim was to stop Japan's invading of Asian countries and to let them become indipendent
and Soviet's aim of paticipating in the war was to invade and obtain south Sakhalin and Etorofu and Kunashiri of the southern Kurile islands and also Shikotan, Habomai Islands,
those are original islands of Japan, where aboriginal Ainu inhabitants had lived through the ages and the U.S.'s aim of the war seemed to obtain Okinawa in truth.
After the War, Japan has made a rapid growth in economy and ranks the second in GDP until China overtake the second position.
Hoever, after concluding the Treaty of Peace, still now, there is an infringement of national sovereignty of territorial right left between Japan and some nations of the Allied Powers.
Some Japanese islands have been occupied by Rusia and South Korea and some Japanese islands is now threatned by China and Taiwan.
Today it appears that U.S. military facilities occupy through out Japanese Archipelago.
See U.S. military facilities
About small uninhabited islands out of sight far beyond their living places appeared no concerns to the ancient people :
In ancient times, people showed no concern with uninhabited islands out of sight far-off from the beach, therefore they might not name the islands if the islands didn't bring any profits
or damages to people.
We sometimes find some small uninhabited islands with a certain names on old nautical maps. we think that was because of a voyage use of the days. We think a land-base map was drawned by surveying lands
or by copying other maps or just by a look.
Supposing that an certain island situated between certain two nations and their people had vague notion of the territorial right in ancient times and supposing that fishermen of each country worked on
fishery boats to catch marine products around the island, both fishermen might have quarrel about fish or fishing spot but they wouldn't fight with each other with weapons for claiming the island.
I guess that any battle between the two nations which fishermen belonging to wouldn't occur for possessing a tiny useless island in those days. In this situation it didn't seem that the island
itself was a matter of importance between the two nations in those days.
So the trade and the relationship between two countries must have not affected by the island.
When we refer to a territory of island, it becomes very important nowadays because it's a matter of the territorial waters and of an exclusive economic zone around the island,
which is also related to a legal right of the property ownership of the useful oil, gas and minerals deposit under bottom of the sea. And further more to the country which has the military,
the island may have a most important meaning as a military strategy.
About Uotsuri-jima of Senkaku Islands and how to judge the possession of the Island :
Uotsuri-jima is located in the southwest of Japan in the East China Sea. See map fig.1 and fig.3.
Japanese fishermen had been visiting Senkaku Islands for capture of fish and bird. The government of Japan researched whether the island was under the control of any countries or not,
and it was confirmed that the island didn't belong to any countries.
Japan decided to incorporate it into the territory in 1895 Jan.14.
Japanese goverment had rented the island to Japanese merchant for free 30 years and after that the government sold Uotsuri-jima, Minami-kojima, Kita-kojima and Kuba-jima to his son in 1932.
Japanese merchants established a workshop for processing marine product and making down product at Uotsuri-jima and worked there until aroud World War II broke. Since the workshop was closed,
the Island have been uninhabited. However, owner has payed the land tax.
The land-leasing contract for four islands except Taishou-jima was made between a land owner and Japanese gavernment since 2002 for the national security.
In 2012 it was agreed that Japanese government purchased three islands of Senkaku Islands except Kuba-jima from land owner.
Supposing two countries claim a certain island as their own each. To clarify this territorial matter it is necessary to investigate the historical background on the administration to it.
The judgment of ownership of a certain island must be made by the fact which country had first acknowledged it and took an official procedure as her territory.
About Ryukyu Dynasty :
There was Ryukyu Dynasty in the southern part of Japan, beginning from ancient times to 1879. There was for a period of time that three Kings administrated in three regions apart in long history of Ryukyu. Ryukyu administrated widely from Amami-shotou to Sakishima-shotou in her most widely influenced periods.
There were a kind of tribute-tradeing relation among ancient China, ancient Japan and ancient Ryukyu.
There was the Ming emperor period in ancient China(1368-1644). Ming was big and strong, while Ryukyu Dynasty was small, so Ryukyu King had exacted tribute to Ming as other ancient Asian countries did. Japan didn't seem to exact tribute to China around the 1600's already.
Ryukyu King had also exacted tribute to feudal Shimazu load in Edo period of old Japan, which located in today's Kagoshima prefecture in Kyushu. It is said that feudal Shimazu load occupied Ryukyu Dynasty by forces
but the load controlled gently and permitted Ryukyu King to be independent to quite some extent, with being careful manner not to anger Ming. But Amami-shotou was handed over to Shimazu.
Ming admitted trading only by the form of paying tribute with foreign countries and admitted trading with Ryukyu just once in a decade. Ming forbade any people of Ming to go abroad.
Tokugawa Shogun ordered feudal Shimazu load to pay tax including Ryukyu's portion. So Shimazu ordered Ryukyu to pay tax. Ryukyu wanted to trade with European countries for getting more profit
but Tokugawa prohibited doing so. Tokugawa prohibited any master of feudal estate trading with foreign countries. Tokugawa fixed that Nagasaki port was only one port open for trading with foreign countries.
Ryukyu was getting into difficult conditions in paying a burden of tax to Shimazu because of little of trading profit. Thus almost all villages in Ryukyu were collapsed by not able to pay the burden of tax
and Ryukyu society was getting worse and worse.
Time passed and the era of Ming ended and Qing started in China and in Japan the Tokugawa period ended and Meiji era started in 1868, and at this time,
Ryukyu Dynasty was taken into under Japanese governance as Okinawa prefecture. In 1879 Japanese Meiji Government enforced to deprive of the throne from Ryukyu King and enforced on him to move to Tokyo and gave him just the title of a nobleman.
About the Allies Powers and U.S.A. in occupations of Japan since the end of World War II, and the area of the trust territory of
the Ryukyu Islands by U.S. occupation :
In 1894 first Sino-Japanese War broke for domination of Choson. In 1895 the war ended with Japan's victory, and the Treaty of Shimonoseki was concluded and
that declaired of Choson's independent from China in its foreign relations. After the war against Japan, Qing became weak and in 1900 Russia, England, the United States of America and Japan
and some other countries moved their army into Beijing for getting a concession to construct a railroad or to lease a railroad and a port.
In 1937 the war between China and Japan broke. In 1941 the war between Japan and U.S.A. broke in the Pacific Ocean and ended with Japan's catastrophically devastated defeat
by bombing of nuclear wepons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan decided to accept the surrender to the Allied Powers, and Emperor broadcasted through the radio of the acceptance of
the Potsdam Declaration and the unconditional surrender Aug.15,1945.
Japanese Foreign Minister as the representative of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese Goverment, and General Douglas MacArthur of the representative of the Allied Powers
and some countries' representatives signed the Instlemen tof Surrender on the battleship Missouri Sep.2,1945.
In concluding the Treaty of Peace in San Francisco in 1951, and Japan renounced all East Asian countries which Japan obtained at war. These countries began the steps toward independent.
But there are some islands which are not yet settled the title of islands around these countries in South China Sea.
Whole Japan was placed under the Allies Powers and U.S.A. led the Allies in occupations and rehabilitation of Japan. See Treaty of Peace with Japan in 1951 below.
Nanpou-shotou and Nansei-shotou had been placed under control of U.S.A. trust territory until 1953 since the end of World War II. In 1953 Nansei-shotou except Ryukyu-shotou was returned to Japan's administration
and in 1968 South Islands from Sofu Gan of Nanpou-shotou was returned to Japan. See fig.4, fig.5.
But Ryukyu-shotou includes Senkaku-shotou( Senkaku Islands) was placed under control of trust territory of The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands until 1972.
The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands was a military administration actually.
The administration redefined the area of controle by latitude and longitude. The area is within the position :
( 28o N Lat,124o 40' S Long) , ( 24o N Lat,124o S Long) , ( 24o N Lat,133o S Long) ,
( 27o N Lat,131o 50' S Long) , ( 27o N Lat,128o 18' S Long) , ( 28o N Lat,128o 18' S Long)
The area of trust territory was announced as fig.6.
fig.4 The Islands - (mentiond in Treaty of Peace with Japan in San Francisco in 1951
Chapter II Article 2)
(Note: The lines on the map above don't mean latitude and longitude, but just show inclusion.)
See the Treaty of Peace with Japan in San Francisco in 1951 below.
fig.5 Nansei-shotou (The Southwest Islands)
(Note: The lines on the map above don't mean latitude and longitude, but just show inclusion.)
fig.6 Ryukyu-guntou ; (controled area was reconfirmed by The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands)
(Note: The lines on this map above show area based by latitude and longitude.)
This means that Ryukyu-shotou (or Ryukyu-guntou) (including Uotsuri-jima of Senkaku-shotou) which the Treaty of Peace in San Francisco in 1951 approved as Japanese land
and the Ryukyu-guntou had been under the control of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan until the treaty was signed between U.S. and Japan in 1975,
since then Ryukyu-guntou has been the land of Japan.
See the Treaty of Peace with Japan in San Francisco in 1951 below.
About the estimation of a high potential for oil and gas around continental shelf between Japan
and China, and China's claiming Uotsuri-jima as her territory :
Asian countries have developed rapidly, their national economy has grown and population has enlarged and country has needed energy resources more and more.
International nautical law established in 1900. The law defined territorial waters, an exclusive economic zone and etc. After the law established,
some countries began to claim the right of territory of a certain island for the purpose of oil or mineral deposits under sea bed and sea product within these areas.
In 1968 the survey for geological features of under sea bed around East China Yellow Sea and around Ryukyu Islands was conducted by the U.S.A. Naval Oceanographic Office
with participation by scientists from Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East member nations. The result of the surveying soil nature of the sea bed was reported.
It wrote that continental shelf and the Yellow Sea and much of the continental shelf north of Taiwan had sedimentary thickness and that this area was supposed to have a high potential for oil and gas.
After China learned this fact, China began to claim the Senkaku Islands as China's territory, and as if China might find a chance to fight to steal Senkaku by force from Japan, China sails patrol ships
around Senkaku Islands and sometimes come inside Japanese territory of sea illegally now.
China is enough wise that she wouldn't fight with a stronger country than China by a few times of forces
and would stand still apparently, but her opponent looked far weaker than her, then she would threaten a weaker opponent with a large scale of weapons.
About Yalta Conference 1945:
The leaders of Allied Powers held a conference at Yalta, Crimea in Russia in 1945 to talk over the matter of how to rule the surrendered countries (Germany, Italy and Japan)
and matter of the compensation for damages and of how to make future United Nations after World War II.
At this moment U.S.A. and Japan was at war in the northwest of the Pacific Ocean and U.S.A. feared that Japan would fight against U.S.A. with the last resistance cruelly to the finish and
that it would take long time making Japan into surrender. So U.S.A. wanted Soviet to participate into the war against Japan in the Far East.
Soviet agreed the participation of war against Japan as following agreement would be admitted in return among other Allied Powers that Soviet would take over the interests and operation
which Japan had in Manchuria and a lease at Port Arthur after Japan's surrender and would obtain the southern part of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
AGREEMENT REGARDING JAPAN
The leaders of the three great powers - Generalissimo Stalin of the Soviet Union, President Roosevelt of the United States of America and Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britain - have agreed that in two or three months after Germany has surrendered and the war in Europe is terminated, the Soviet Union shall enter into war against Japan on the side of the Allies on condition that:
1. The status quo in Outer Mongolia (the Mongolian People's Republic) shall be preserved.
2. The former rights of Russia violated by the treacherous attack of Japan in 1904 shall be restored, viz.:
(a) The southern part of Sakhalin as well as the islands adjacent to it shall be returned to the Soviet Union;
(b) The commercial port of Dairen shall be internationalized, the pre-eminent interests of the Soviet Union in this port being safeguarded, and the lease of Port Arthur as a naval base of the U.S.S.R. restored;
(c) The Chinese-Eastern Railroad and the South Manchurian Railroad, which provide an outlet to Dairen, shall be jointly operated by the establishment of a joint Soviet-Chinese company, it being understood that the pre-eminent interests of the Soviet Union shall be safeguarded and that China shall retain sovereignty in Manchuria;
3. The Kurile Islands shall be handed over to the Soviet Union.
About Choson Dynasty in Korean Peninsular :
At the age of Choson Dynasty in the 1860's some western countries demanded Choson to open port for commerce by foreign pressure with forces.
There was old political relationship between ancient China and Choson ; Choson was important China's client state. Choson bring tribute goods to ancient China (Ming and Qing at that time, and long before as well), ancient China gave trade goods in return.
In doing so Choson showed to Qing-China that Choson was not an enemy but a kind of dependent country, because of avoiding to be attacked by big China.
Japan in Meiji period and Qing-China and Russia also demanded to open port to Choson. Armed farmers' fighting occured against the government of Choson in 1894. The government of Choson asked for Qing's soldiers. As soon as Qing soldiers moved into Choson for suppressing the rebellion, Japanese soldiers moved into Choson. Then farmers and the government made the peace agreement soon, for fear of taking forein soldiers' action to Chosen people.
Japan took drastic action of reforming Choson's adoministration, occupied the Palace and eliminated anti-Japanese royal family and placed pro-Japanese King's father to govern the country.
Japan feared big Russia to invade into Korean Peninsula. Japan wanted to take away Qing's influences on Choson and to establish there as the guard from Russian invasion to Japan.
So Japan began the battle with Qing in 1894 and occupied some stratgic important peninsulars in China and beaten the Qing battle ships. First Sino-Japanese War ended and concluded the treaty at Shimonoseki in 1895.
Japan acquired Taiwan from Qing through this war and that wrote on the treaty document, however, Taiwan wouldn't adomit it and resisted against Japan. Japan moved the soldiers into Taiwan and occupied there in 1895.
In 1897 Choson King changed the country name to Korean Empire. After Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), under the various historical circumstances, Japan annexed Korean Empire at last (1910). Chosen Dynasty ceased.
About Take-shima :
Japanese fishermen were fishing at Take-shima (called Matsu-shima at that time) in 17-18 centuries Edo period and visited Ulleung Island.
Time passed. The government of Japan took an administrative order to Shimane prefecture to place Take-shima under the administrative control of Shimane prefecture in 1905.
Japan annexed Korean Empire in 1910. World War II broke out in 1941 and ended in 1945.
Korea was set free and independent from Japanese administration because of Japan's renunciation of Korea, Ulleung Island and Jeju Island by U.N.'s victory and concluding the Peace Treaty of Japan with Allied Powers after World War II in 1951 at San Francisco.
Korea claimed Take-shima as Korean territory to the U.N. but U.N. denied it. So Korea declared sea territory line with including Take-shima on one-sided decision in 1952 and occupied it, while Japan was under control of U.S. occupation army government. Since 1954 Korean soldiers have settled at Take-shima (Korean calls it 'Dokt').
About Japanese Islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan and Habomai Islands stolen by Russia :
There are islands named Sakhalin, Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan and Habomai Islands, which are located in the north of Hokkaido in Japan. The land of those islands and Hokkaido had been the territory of native Ainu people.
Russo-Japanese Treaty of Amity was concluded in 1855 between Japan and Russia, and the two nations approved that the boundary of the Kuril Islands was fixed between Urup Island and Etorofu Island.
By the consequence of Russo-Japanese Treaty (1875), Sakhalin and the northern part of The Kuril Islands from Urup Island were changed on the ownership of the land in history.
Time passed and World War II broke. When the war in Europe was terminated in a few months, the war in the Pacific Ocean the battle between Japan and the U.S.A. intensified and top leaders of the Allied Powers held a conference at Yalta in Russia to discus on the matter of establishing the United Nations' alliances and of responsibility for reparations for the war damages and governing Germany. And U.S.A. and U.K. discussed with Soviet under which conditions Soviet would participate in fighting against Japan in Far East with U.S.A. together.
Soviet demanded the southern portion of Sakhalin, a lease at Port Arthur, the operation of the Manchurian railroads and the Kuril Islands above mentioned.
But this agreement just approved Soviet to invade into Japanese territory of Kuril Islands located in the south of Urup Island and to stolen them, which procedure was supposed to contrary to 'Cairo declaration 1943' as follows that
Cairo declaration 1943
President Roosevelt, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Prime Minister Churchill, together with their respective military and diplomatic advisers, have completed a conference in North Africa.
The following general statement was issued:
"The several military missions have agreed upon future military operations against Japan. The Three Great Allies expressed their resolve to bring unrelenting pressure against their brutal enemies by sea, Iand, and air. This pressure is already rising."
"The Three Great Allies are fighting this war to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan. They covet no gain for themselves
and have no thought of territorial expansion.
It is their purpose that Japan shall be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of
the First World War in 1914, and that all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and The Pescadores,
shall be restored to the Republic of China. Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.
The aforesaid three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent- - -
Soviet invade into Etorofu, Kunashiri and moved out Japanese soldiers and all native Ainu residents also to Shikotan and Habomai Islands.
Following that Soviet then moved out all residents from Shikotan and Habomai Islands.
Japan renounced all the land which Japan obtained by the consequence of Sino-Japanese war
, Russo-Japanese war and World War II, except for the original land which Japan had governed before these wars. However,
Russia has occupied these Japanese islands more than 60 years since the end of the War. So Japanese claim that those four home islands of
Ainu people should be returned to them from Russia.
This is a territorial dispute between Japan and Russia on the subject of the Kuril Islands.
About the Peace Treaty with Allied Powers :
After World War II Japan concluded the Peace Treaty with Allied Powers, that wrote below.
Treaty of Peace with Japan in 1951 after Worl War II
Treaty of Peace with Japan
Signed at San Francisco, 8 September 1951
Initial entry into force*: 28 April 1952
THE ALLIED POWERS AND JAPAN have therefore determined to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and
have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, who, after presentation of their full
powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:
(a) The state of war between Japan and each of the Allied Powers is terminated as from the date on
which the present Treaty comes into force between Japan and the Allied Power concerned as provided
for in Article 23.
(b) The Allied Powers recognize the full sovereignty of the Japanese people over Japan and its territorial
(a) Japan recognizing the independence of Korea, renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including
the islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet.
(b) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores.
(c) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Kurile Islands, and to that portion of Sakhalin and the
islands adjacent to it over which Japan acquired sovereignty as a consequence of the Treaty of
Portsmouth of 5 September 1905.
(d) Japan renounces all right, title and claim in connection with the League of Nations Mandate System,
and accepts the action of the United Nations Security Council of 2 April 1947, extending the trusteeship
system to the Pacific Islands formerly under mandate to Japan.
(e) Japan renounces all claim to any right or title to or interest in connection with any part of the Antarctic
area, whether deriving from the activities of Japanese nationals or otherwise.
(f) Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Spratly Islands and to the Paracel Islands.
Japan will concur in any proposal of the United States to the United Nations to place under its trusteeship
system, with the United States as the sole administering authority, Nansei Shoto south of 29 deg. north
latitude (including the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands), Nanpo Shoto south of Sofu Gan (including the
Bonin Islands , Rosario Island and the Volcano Islands) and Parece Vela and Marcus Island. Pending the
making of such a proposal and affirmative action thereon, the United States will have the right to exercise
all and any powers of administration, legislation and jurisdiction over the territory and inhabitants of ]
these islands, including their territorial waters.
(a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Article, the disposition of property of Japan and of
its nationals in the areas referred to in Article 2, and their claims, including debts, against the
authorities presently administering such areas and the residents (including juridical persons) thereof, and
the disposition in Japan of property of such authorities and residents, and of claims, including debts, of
such authorities and residents against Japan and its nationals, shall be the subject of special arrangements
between Japan and such authorities. The property of any of the Allied Powers or its nationals in the areas
referred to in Article 2 shall, insofar as this has not already been done, be returned by the administering
authority in the condition in which it now exists. (The term nationals whenever used in the present Treaty
includes juridical persons.)
(b) Japan recognizes the validity of dispositions of property of Japan and Japanese nationals made by or
pursuant to directives of the United States Military Government in any of the areas referred to in Articles
2 and 3.
(c) Japanese owned submarine cables connection Japan with territory removed from Japanese control
pursuant to the present Treaty shall be equally divided, Japan retaining the Japanese terminal and adjoining
half of the cable, and the detached territory the remainder of the cable and connecting terminal facilities.
(a) Japan accepts the obligations set forth in Article 2 of the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular
(i) to settle its international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and
security, and justice, are not endangered;
(ii) to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or
political independence of any State or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United
Nations; (iii) to give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the
Charter and to refrain from giving assistance to any State against which the United Nations may take
preventive or enforcement action.
(b) The Allied Powers confirm that they will be guided by the principles of Article 2 of the Charter of the
United Nations in their relations with Japan.
(c) The Allied Powers for their part recognize that Japan as a sovereign nation possesses the inherent
right of individual or collective self-defense referred to in Article 51 of the Charter of the United
Nations and that Japan may voluntarily enter into collective security arrangements.
(a) All occupation forces of the Allied Powers shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as possible after
the coming into force of the present Treaty, and in any case not later than 90 days thereafter. Nothing
in this provision shall, however, prevent the stationing or retention of foreign armed forces in Japanese
territory under or in consequence of any bilateral or multilateral agreements which have been or may be
made between one or more of the Allied Powers, on the one hand, and Japan on the other.
(b) The provisions of Article 9 of the Potsdam Proclamation of 26 July 1945, dealing with the return of
Japanese military forces to their homes, to the extent not already completed, will be carried out.
(c) All Japanese property for which compensation has not already been paid, which was supplied for the
use of the occupation forces and which remains in the possession of those forces at the time of the
coming into force of the present Treaty, shall be returned to the Japanese Government within the
same 90 days unless other arrangements are made by mutual agreement.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
The present Treaty shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America
which shall furnish each signatory State with a certified copy thereof.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty.
DONE at the city of San Francisco this eighth day of September 1951, in the English, French, and Spanish
languages, all being equally authentic, and in the Japanese language.
About the issue of the change of territory between Japan and Russia on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands :
|Year & Treaty
| 1855:Russo-Japanese Treaty of Amity (The Treaty of Shimoda )
Japan and Russia both recognize that the boundary of the two nations is concluded between Etorofu island and Urup island and northern part of the Kuril islands including Urup are Russian territory.
Japan and Russia both recognize that as for Sakhalin, two nations don't fix the boundary and continue the same conditions as before.
| 1875:Russo-Japanese Treaty
(The Treaty of Saint Petersburg or Sankt Peterburg)
(Sankt Peterburg:former Petrograd and Leningrad 1914-1991)
Japan and Russia both recognize that Japan renounces the claim of all the right on Sakhalin in exchange for possessing all the Kuril islands from Urup island to the northernmost island.
|1905:Portsmouth Peace Treaty
Russia cedes the southern part of Sakhalin to Japan forever. The fiftieth degree of north latitude is adopted as the territorial boundary.
|1951:Treaty with Japan at San Francisco (San Francisco Peace Treaty)
Japan renounces all right, title and claim to the Kurile Islands, and to the southern part of Sakhalin and the islands adjacent to it over which Japan acquired sovereignty as a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth 1905.
Japan obtained the southern part of Sakhalin in consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Regarding the issue of being neglected Japanese people's human right by the U.S. Forces' installations throughout Japan.
The Facilities of the U.S. Forces in Japan, which were fixed in the times of the confused and the tensed state of politically and militarily between the U.S. allied block and the Soviet allied block both threatening each other by the power of nuclea weapons after World War II, which is called the Cold War between the East and the West.
But Soviet Communism system collapsed in 1993. Even now Japan is not at all independent from the situations of under the unconditional surrender about 70 years ago, mainly controled by the U.S.A.'s power.
It is not too much to say that Japanese government is still under controle of the power of U.S. government.
It is not too much to say that Japan is still like a slave country and that the government of Japan almost never been allowed to say 'no' to that of the U.S.A.'s demands
It is not too much to say that Japanese people are neglected of his and her own human right by the government.
See the list of the Facilities of the U.S. Forces in Japan.