(1916.2.8. - 2008.4.29. 大正5年 - 平成20年 in Japanese Era Name)
(Last Update: December 30 2016: Official biography by the Hall of Fame in Japanese - pdf 1.4MB, December 29 2016: Graduation certificate of Tokyo Imperial University - jpg 596KB, and academic credit certificate of the engineering faculty - jpg 589KB, June 9 2011: Older brother Mitsuo Hasegawa, January 2 1011: In-house documents of hire and salary of Tachikawa Aircraft company and Toyota Moror Company, December 4 2010: National Museum of Nature and Science, March 7 2010: The Publicans and Good ol' boys, March 1 2010: Paper published in JJSME 1981 added, February 11 2010: Scale models of Ki-94 and P-38 added, January 21/22 2010: External links added, November 16 2009: Planar drawing of main wing, its peculiar TH airfoil, and lateral drawing of rear fuselage of Ki-94 from original in 1945, November 11 2009: Drawing of manipulation of turbocharger and intercooler in Ki-94, November 10 2009: Blueprints of Ha44-12 radial engine, October 26 2009: Blueprint of B29 available in 1944 to aircraft engineers in Japan, October 1-3 2009: Several papers in pdf.format added to References in Japanese section)
Tatsuo grew up in poverty because Kumazo died soon
after his birth and, one day in brilliant but monetarily miserable childhood, a strong mental
response was evoked in Tottori from a demonstration flight performed by
a military Salmson biplane, (In Japanese). After siblings migrated to Tokyo with continuing hardship, he eventually went on to high school, the First Imperial High School at Tokyo
(Ichikou in Japanese)(1932-1935),
encouraged intensely by a junior-high-school teacher Yamamoto at Rikkyo (1929-1932), who had perceived Tatsuo family's battle with poverty though.
After majoring in aerodynamics as a self-supporting student, he graduated from
the Section of Aeronautics of the Faculty of Engineering at Tokyo Imperial University in 1939 (1936-1939, graduation certificate of Tokyo Imperial University, which is 52x42 cm big-sized with watermarked paper, academic credit certificate of the engineering faculty).
During this period, he participated in the glider club of the faculty (leader: Shigeichi Moriguchi,
who later became a professor of engeneering at Tokyo Univeristy, a pioneer in
computer science and a leader of nation-wide QC movement in Japan), and acquired
license of gliding, 2nd-stage, by Ministry of Communication of Japan
in 1938. In fact, during one of these routine training sessions, he experienced a failed landing
and damaged a tail end of the fuselage. According to the supervising Professor
Tomijirou Moriya, Tatsuo maintained a straight face after nose dive and crash,
and resumed training the day after in a business-as-usual style (Essay in 1972 by Prof. T. Moriya about this accident, jpg file 503KB).
As one of the youngest chief
fighter designers in the military circle in those days, he began to develop a high altitude
interceptor Ki-94 in 1943 in Tachikawa Aircraft Corporation (TAC, documents of hire appointment and his first salary in 1939) for the army (1939-1945). The specialized purpose was of course
to intercept the formation of B-29 bombers (Blueprint of B29 provided by Major Noboru Kimura of Air Staff, probably during mid 1944, 424KB jpg.file) and shoot them down from the safety range. After the initial design Ki-94-I with twin fuselage and tandemly-arranged engines,
that he and TAC proposed to the army was abandoned (Order to proceed to prototype production of Ki-94 and 104 by the Japanese Imperial Army's Air Headquarters issued in June 1943, TOPSEC available in 1.7MB pdf file), he revised and proposed the scheme as Ki-94-II in
May 1944 (Assessment and order by the Army issued on June 23 1944, TOPSEC available in 402KB pdf file) that has an orthodox outline but with several new ideas, i.e.,
laminar flow wing (TH airfoil) with high aspect ratio, pressurized cabin, the installed
engine being two-row, 18-cylinder, air-cooled radial Nakajima Ha44-12 (Ha219; 2, 450 hp, original fading drawing-1 left 1/5, and drawing-2 right 4/5, the original, falling-apart giant size drawing was carefully scanned by A-3 size with Xerox to total 3x12? jpg files, and combined with imaging software by Akio in October 2009) that was turbocharged
with Hitachi Ru204 (, or Ishikawajima Ru124) in the underbelly (see below drawing). It measures 14 meter in span and 12 meter in
overall length, with 28-square-meter wing area and 6,400 kg in maximum loaded weight.
The theoretical maximum performance was 750 km/h at 10,000 meter, endurance of 40 minutes at
9,000 meter and full power in addition to 1.53 hours at cruising speed, with armaments
of two each, wing-mounted 30 mm and 20 mm cannon.
Before the surrender day on August 15, photographing a prototype
interceptor was strictly prohibited because of military secrecy even if
he is an original concept formulator/engineer. I heard from my father
that after the defeat he took in a hurry with available camera many
pictures of his Ki-94 in the Kanamachi factory in the confusion of the
Actually, Ki-94 has never taken off, eventually didn't kill/hurt any personel. Japan surrendered
on August 15 1945. Alas, on that day her maiden flight was scheduled! Tatsuo's
progress note had disrupted at that moment forever, but his dream of AIM HIGH
didn't. The fate of the prototype Ki-94-II after being confiscated
immediately from the factory by the occupying Armed Forces is beyond our
knowledge, so your information would be acknowledged.
After the WWII was over, temporaily he applied for the US Occupation Forces as a construction
technologist and language interpreter (1945-1946) where salary was not bad, according to
his memorandum, and build self-confidence in English speaking.
He was finally urged to change the course, because the aviation
was prohibited in the occupied Japan that was now under control of the General Head Quarter (GHQ) of General Douglas MacArthur. As many colleagues did, he sought for employment
to the nascent automobile industry, in his case TOYOTA Motor Company (1946-1986, document to suggest his hire condition in 1946, document of appointment in 1946, document of his first salary in June 1946, His signature on the new year greeting card 1951, Ditto, destination side - by courtesy of Mr. Akio Fujiwawa at Kamakura).
In September to November 1958, he alone traveled on business (at company expense) to the United States for field investigation, visiting over 80 institutions including GM's technical center. He was impressed by open-minded welcome of a lone wandering Japanese engineer dispatched from a Japan Inc. here and there by Corporate America of golden fifties (see ref. 13, 14 below).
Later, his design team has launched several "smaller, faster, better" projects successfully (documents of in-house position advancement),
e.g., the first generation models of Publica, Sports 800 (*1), Corolla, Celica
and Carina. He was promoted to the general manager of the product planning office and senior director, and retired from this industry in 1982.
He was a senior consultant to DuPont, Delaware, in 1982-1988, where
he advised them on the marketing strategy aimed at automobile industry.
Detroit Development Center may be one of his contributions.
He was alive and well in Hayama (the view of the house in December 2007,
now Akio's vacation house),
Kanagawa Prefecture, near Yokosuka Naval Base, and concentrating on
gardening with roses and cattleyas till December 2001, when he moved to
the new mansion in Tokyo with my mother Miyoko, actually returned to
Tokyo after living in rural area of Japan over 50 years. His life style
is extremely regular, maybe alike that of Immanuel Kant in Koenigsberg,
i.e., at age 90 (February 2006) getting up early morning, reading books
and periodicals (National Geographic, Science, etc in English) and
tending plants, and eating meals three times a day at strictly fixed
time. Who do you think cares for him? Of course, my mother at age 84
(March 2006). They can still live fully independently from me and my
brother Masao. In fact, regular check-up a decade ago revealed
increased level of PSA (10-15 ng, stabilized), which he firstly didn't
care for and his and urologist's option was no treatment, and after a
reasonable interval hormone therapy was initiated, which has downed PSA
level to less than 5 ng for years and caused gynecomastia. My educated
guess is that his DCD would not be prostatic cancer. ;) OTH, My mother
Miyoko is showing a increasing short-term amnesia for a couple of
years, but still maintains her personal integrity and daily activity.
So far, so good,,,
On November 15 2004, he was elected one of 2004 inductees in Japan Automotive Hall of Fame
for (1) application of aerodynamics theory to automobile design, and
(2) main-stream product planning and management in corporate
(*1) Application of aerodynamics to lightweight two-seater sports car, with oval-shaped body as a logical consequence
(cf. Track record:
Shozo Sato's original angular design concept during Nissan years). BTW,
Sports 800 is called YotaHachi by connoisseur in Japan, which means
Yota=waddle in Japanese or toYota, Hachi=eight:
References in Japanese:
1. Hasegawa, T. On airfoil with a radius at the trailing edge.
JJSA (Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautics 日本航空学会誌 in Japanese),
1942:9(83);267-278 (177-186) (March 1942, pdf.file - 510KB).
2. Hasegawa, T. Airfoil (wing section) theory and its application. Proceeding of the Tenth Anniversary of the Japan Society for Aeronautics, 1943:1-6 (November 1 1943, pdf.file - 312KB).
3. Hasegawa, T. High-altitude fighter plane. Flying Japan (飛行日本), 1945:20(2);17-19 (February 1 1945, pdf.file - 281KB).
4. Hasegawa, T. and Akiyama, I. A consideration on the stress (burden) inflicted on the automobile, with special reference to the stress in the free fall. The Toyota Engineering, 1948:1(1);1-8 (pdf.file - 5,075KB).
5. Hasegawa, T. A consideration on line drawing of automobile body,
with special reference to application of curvilinear coordination system and mathematical expression (Fourier transformation). The Toyota Engineering, 1948:1(4);11-17 (pdf.file - 890KB).
6. Hasegawa, T. On the results of wind-tunnel experiment at the First Department
of Engineering of Tokyo University for aerodynamic characteristics of
three category of automobile bodies. The Toyota Engineering, 1948:1(8);1-12 (From Tatsuo's memento album: Photo-1, Photo-2, pdf.file - 618KB).
7. Hasegawa, T. On the test results of a small-sized passenger vehicle by wind tunnel (summary available in pdf.file - 113KB). JJSME (Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 日本機械学会誌, 1948:51(352);18.
8. Hasegawa, T. On the test results of a small-sized passenger vehicle by wind tunnel. Collected Papers of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering (日本機械学会論文集), 1948:14(48);4-12 (pdf.file - 6,920KB).
9. Hasegawa, T. Consideration of airodynamics in automobile design. Streamlined shape (流線型), 1948: 8(5);10-11 (pdf.file - 141KB).
10. Hasegawa, T. and Nishida, K. On the frameless monocoque structure of BW bus.
The Toyota Engineering, 1950:3(2);16-19 (From Tatsuo's memento album: Photo-1, Photo-2 dated 1949-2-22 at Kariya factory, Photo-3, pdf.file - 407KB).
11. Hasegawa, T. and Nishida, K. On the body and frame of RS (Toyopet Crown, pdf.file - 1,210KB).
The Toyota Engineering, 1955:8(1-2);22-29.
12. Hasegawa, T. Full-fledged high-altitude air-defence fighter aircraft Ki-94. The World's Aircraft 1956: 6(5);100-107 and 1956:6(6); 94-95 (世界の航空機、鳳文所林、港区, pdf.file - 2.5MB).
13. Hasegawa, T. Construction of freeway in Los Angeles area. JSAE (Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan) Chube Branch (自動車技術会中部支部報), 1959:8;41-44 (pdf.file - 363KB, with special thanks to Mr. A.D. Griffin, assistant district engineer of the 7th district of LA for valuable cooperation).
14. Hasegawa, T. Aerodynamical engineering of automobiles (自動車の空気力学設計について). JSAE (Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, 自動車技術), 1960:14(5);202-207 (pdf.file - 474KB).
15. Hasegawa, T. Newborn family car"Carolla" (KE10 series). The Toyota Engineering, 1966:18(2);1-4 (pdf.file - 4,200KB).
16. Hasegawa, T. Sprouting advanced technology implicit in Ford Mustang. Bessatu Jitugyo-no-Nippon (Supplimentary volume of Business Japan in Japanese, 別冊実業の日本), 1968: 1(2, July 10);261-267 (pdf.file - 279KB).
17. Hasegawa, T. Future leap on basic science and technology. "Think about tomorrow" (明日に向かって), 30-year anniversary issue of the foundation of Toyota Engineering Society, 1977, 71-73 (pdf.file - 194KB).
18. Hasegawa, T. Automobile industry and engineering in Japan. JJSME (Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 日本機械学会誌), 1981:84(746);61-67 (pdf file - 800KB). Nota bene the wisdom in the section 4.4 "The relationship with universities and research institutes".
19. Hasegawa, T. A peanut tale between Mr. Kotchian and me (コーチャンと私のピーナッツ物語). Bungei-Shunjuu (文芸春秋), 1982:8 (July 1982);89-91 (pdf.file - 1,281KB) .
20. Hasegawa, T. A comment on TH wing (Airfoil with a radius at the trailing edge, available in pdf.file - 478KB).
JJSASS (Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences in Japanese), 1982:30 (Dec 1982);704-714 (reenact of ref. 1).
Mr. Richard Street meets the rhythm section, no, no, no, the son of Tatsuo Hasegawa
on the Japan Classic Car Association's New Year Meeting on January 27
2008 held at Aomi Temporary Parking Lot in Tokyo Bay Area. Hey, take a
look at that small box held under Akio's left arm, Smoked Wild King Salmon by Seabear
at Washington State, which some people would argue that it must be a
bribery to a narrow-minded local official in Japan. In fact, Akio
consumed smoked salmon as hors d'oeuvre at home dinner with his wife in
the night (full disclosure). Rich likes Sports 800 and Koi (carp), whereas Akio too prefers imported products
(see his Country Cord Blazer from L.L.Bean on this photo, and his Birkin Seven sports car).
PS: Tatsuo suffered from falling accident while out for a walk with Miyoko on September 23 2007 (at age 91), and transfered to the ER
of an affiliated hospital of Tokyo Women's Medical College Shiseikai 2nd
on ambulance, where CT-images revealed several hemorrhages, including
contra-coup injuries, in the cerebral cortex, but sparing the internal
capsule and brain stem: CT-image (By courtesy of Drs. Kawabata, MD, Tanoshika, MD, and Hamada, MD). He recovered from cerebral contusion, hemorrhage
and from compicating mild aspiration pneumonia, and vital prognosis is not bad (die-hard engineer, indeed,,),
with no pyramidal signs till lately, however, orientation is not good
with moderate decline in intelligence, and gait is impossible as of
October 8. He remembers very well glorious fun of driving Celica on the
highway, but, somewhat dimly Corolla to which he ventured his life. Ummmm, Here is the photo presenting the perfect example
of family value
(Hillary Rodham Clinton, do you hear?). After shrugging off the acute
phase (Indeed, he has guts to dine well for his age,,,), he was
transfered from the acute care facility to the chronic rehabilitation
hospital called Tsurumaki Onsen (=Spa) Hospital in
Kanagawa Prefecture on October 25 2007 on my Saab. When I re-visited this hospital on October 27,
he just finished physical therapy (PT) in the morning, and after lunch together I watched his occupational therapy (OT, Images:
(PT/OT for an hour a day, respectively), the latter given by an
occupational therapist who, in fact, appeared a crisp and elegant young
lady. On November 3 when I paid a regular weekly visit to him, we lunched together
at the observation room on the 5th floor of the hospital which is
prepared for reunion between the patient and the family, when Tatsuo
consumed three cream puff I brought for him. Probably next time I dare
to bring a bottle of Bordeaux wine to him to fully soak up the scenery.
Indeed, the Brits put an original idea out, the German enforce it with
strict law, and the French beat the system by finding loopholes. He
could not get up on his own as of this day, though, he had a will to
recover When I visited the hospital before noon on December 8 2007, he
was undergoing physical therapy, and I was astonished to see HE CAN
WALK NOW. He stood from the wheelchair on his own two feet from the parallel bars,
went around the PT training room under the supervision of Mr. Takahashi, PT,
then, to extend the length of sustained walk,
kept trying straight line motion out in the corridor,
eventually he accomplished a 300-meter walk as he proposed to himself. He ist sehr geistig, shows CAN-DO SPIRIT in spite of age 91.
We raised red glasswines on the sly to congratulate a straight 300-meter walk at the observation room on the 5th floor.
Occasional disorientation is now minimized, i.e., stubbornness made a comeback (we weep ;). Rehabilitation medicine works! (By
courtesy of Dr. Mitsuhashi, MD, with special thanks to Mr. Takahashi,
PT, Mrs. Niizawa, OT, and Mr. Urano, ST, and other staff). Before noon
on December 24 2007, Tatsuo was discharged from Tsurumaki Onsen (=Spa) Hospital
after finishing the prescribed rehabilitation regimen (in total,
3-month-hospital stay since the accident. Under normal conditions, it
must be a hard challenge for over-90-year-old man). Two commemorative
pictures at that moment are presented here, (a) Standing alone, hugging with Akio in the ward,
(b) Smiling with ward personnel, best in this country, who are in flush of youth! (Joseph Conrad may be ashamed,,,), in the lobby of the floor.
He then in the afternoon settled to the elderly-care housing, Care Home Hanaemi (in Japanese),
which my wife Mineko and my brother's wife Sumiko had sorted out from
many alternatives and where my mother/his wife Miyoko has already got a
foot in. Best wishes to our seasoned parents. The author Akio is afraid that Tatsuo will become Yota-Hase
(cf. Sports 800's neckname, YotaHachi) anyway in the near future.
On March 9 2008, we held a birthday dinner (French full-course)
for my parents (February 8 for Tatsuo's 92 years-old and March 4 for
Miyoko's 86 years-old) at neaby small but elegant hotel of their care
house (Aobadai Forum) - Ceremonial photo,
toast with champagne flute,
murmuring"C'est la vie" listening to live jazz piano performance,
consumed one bottle of champagne and 1.5 of Bordeaux.
My perception is that aged people live as long as they eat and drink
well. One strange thing that happened during this dinner and I was
surprised at was he suddenly said "Noch einmal" for which
I responded reflexively "Doch, das gibt's nur einmal" (Both in intelligible German), I am still wondering, ummm.
BTW, Akio family have rejoiced at prime number
birthday among others. This time, 92 vs. 86 is not a prime number pair.
The previous one was 89 vs. 83, and next time is 103 vs. 97?
The final curtain is falling on rather abruptly. On Sunday April
13 2008, Tatsuo was found lying unconscious on the floor beside the bed
in the care home at 21:00 by attendant, with no pulse palpable and no
blood pressure measurable (Actually, similar accident, though with
intact vital signs, happened a month before with emergency transfer to
the ER). This time, he was transferred to the ER of Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital
ASAP in a timely fashion by ambulance, arriving with cardiopulmonary
arrest (CPAoA), where resuscitation with adrenalin infusion
successfully induced recovery of heartbeat at 21:40 by Dr. Hayashi and
his ER staff (after arrest for at least 40 minutes).
After receiving a call from the care home, I went in a hurry on my car
through metropolitan expressway, and on my arrival there at 23:00, he
was already put under intratracheal intubation and artificial
ventilation, with laboratory data pCO2 147.6, pO2 51.2, pH 6.87, and bilateral dilated pupil and no light reflex
which I re-checked myself. After transferred to the ward, he remains
unconscious in state of vegetable state to brain stem death, however
with steady heartbeat with sinus rhythm (what an endurable engine!); the vital signs (MS Excel) and clinical laboratory data (jpg)
are as follows (By courtesy of Dr. Hayashi, MD, and my former colleague
at the department of pathology at Tokyo Univerisity Dr.Yoshimura, MD).
And now, the end is near;
And so I face the final curtain.
My friend, I'll say it clear,
I'll state my case, of which I'm certain.
I've lived a life that's full.
I've traveled each and every highway;
And more, much more than this,
I did it my way.
Regrets, I've had a few;
But then again, too few to mention.
I did what I had to do
And saw it through without exemption.
I planned each charted course;
Each careful step along the byway,
But more, much more than this,
I did it my way.,,,,
(His favorite song; actually during active duty days, he was singing in the mild drinking party this song in English)
My father Tatsuo Hasegawa passed away at
age 92 at 1:08 on April 29 2008 at Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital
surrounded by Miyoko (age 86), Akio, and grandchildren at his bedside.
We were holding Tatsuo's hands while bedside monitor was showing
transition from regular sinus rhythm to ventricular tachycardia to
gradual flattening of QRS complex, very gradually. The final curtain
has fallen on, followed by sound of silence,,,,
Private funeral service was held (Photo 1), (Photo 2) at Sion
on May 2 and 3 2008 in Tokyo. Eventually, he was laid to rest
(cineration) in the cemetery of Gotoku-ji (Gotokuji Temple) in
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, on June 14 2008 (Photo1,
Thanks for all of you who were interacting with him during his life. Thank you once again.
Short CPC: Autopsy was performed by the attending pathologist (Dr. Tate) at Showa University
Fujigaoka Hospital, when I myself borrowed the suit and supported him. Later, he
sent me glass slides and macroscopic digital images by courtesy. In short,
the brain and spinal cord showed respirator-associated encephalomyelopathy
superimposed on anoxic damages (absolutely no possibility of recovery),
remarkable dystrophy of femoral striated muscles (most
likely age-associated), prostate cancer involving both lobes with no metas,
showing degeneration due to hormone therapy but still viable,
marked bilateral purulent pneumonia, remarkably healthy (and rather adolescent)
heart, liver, kidneys.
Documents and photographs of Ki-94-I and -II, which have been treasured by Tatsuo since WWII and now by Akio, were displayed in this project (Director: Kazuyoshi Suzuki, group leader of the history of science and technology, the department of science and technology of National Museum of Nature and Science) on October 26 2010 to February 6 2011 with courteous credit.
I came across this plastic model at the specialized store in Akihabara
district of Tokyo in October 2007, which cost me 4,000 Yen. I am now
pondering whether to fabricate and paint or to keep as it is. It is
actually the privilege for scale modeler to paint favorite model in
hypothetical operational camouflage.
Mr. S.S.'s page on
the 330th Bomb Group (B29), whose father was a pilot of B-29 and
passed away on Aug 21, 1991 at the age of 70. According to him,
"He never spoke of the war. When my mother passed away in 2001 we were going
through the house and came across an old foot-locker full of my fathers
photos and medals." So, he created this web to honor the men his father
flew with in the 330th BG. Actually, we are communicating through
e-mails after his coming across my page and contacting me.
I think it is important to assess the other side of the coin, especially
when dealing history of war. War is war, anyway, and we now honor
the pilots of both sides, for me with thanks to the samurai pilots of
Japan who did their best effort to air-defence in the hopeless last phase
of the war.
Reader's Digest (Canada) page entitled "Behind the Scenes: War & Peace" on
an unlikely friendship between a Second World War bomber pilot (457th Bombardment
Squadron of the 330th Bomb Group, B29 SN:42-94029) and
a Japanese man (an 11-year-old boy) who lived through the horror on the ground in Kumagaya, Japan
(approaching altitude 4,500 metres?).
DISCLAIMER: The views expressed here are those of the
author Akio Hasegawa and do not necessarily reflect the official
policy of any institutions in Japan. Citations of trade names do
not constitute an endorsement of the products. Feedback is,
as always, encouraged. Use the address
DrHASEGAWA@aol.com for all correspondence regarding this column.