**** Monitoring of µRoentgen Radiation In Japan ****
- Background and after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant -

(Preprint in the server)

Akio Hasegawa, MD, PhD
Department of Diagnostic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
Odawara Municipal Hospital
(In collaboration with Bryan J. Boardman at Aware Electronics)

(To view the images, click the underlined phrases, and to return to this page, click RETURN key, or the original TAG "µRoentgen Background Radiation" on the toolbar of your browser, アンダーラインの部分をクリックすると画像がポップアップします、このページに戻るにはブラウザーの「戻る」あるいは「←」をクリックするか、元のタグ "µRoentgen Background Radiation" をクリックしてください、

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(Crick for English description)
This site is licensed under a Creative Commons License.
(Crick for Japanese description)


I am a customer of Aware Electronics RM-60 (serial# AWS640166) since 1990s, which I personally purchased from the United States of America. The original motivation was to assure the radiation shielding between my diagnostic pathology floor and radiology department downstairs where up-to-date diagnostic imaging equipments were implemented in a stream in those years. In its pamphlet it is described that normal range, depending on the location and altutude, is 10-25µR/hr, and in a jet at 30,000feet, it might be 300µR/hr. I set the gauge always indoors so as for the window of the measurement appratus not to be covered with radioactive dust. When using Serial-to-USB connector for notebook PC that has no serial port, RM Calibration Factor is being reset from 105.00 (default) to 210.00, as suggested by Bryan J. Boardman at Aware Electronics. On the other hand, in Tokyo and Odawara, the RM-60 is connected through com port:1 with desktop PCs (Pentium 2.4GHz and 2.0GHz), with default calibration factor.

Equivalent doses (conversion formula)
(rate units / minutes) = µR/hr
1 µR ≅ 0.001 mrem or 0.01 µSv

Geography




My hospital in Odawara City

Odawara is located 290 km south west to Fukushima Nuclear facility.

Pre-Accident Background (normal controls):
1999.10.18-25. at Odawara:
  • Summary graph of measument: 1999.10.18-25 - Average 11.96µR/hr
    2006.4. 18 daytime at Odawara:
  • Summary graph of measument: 2006.4.18 - Average 11.59µR/hr

  • After the Tohoku Earthquake and Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011:
    On 11 March at 14:46 an earthquake of Magnitude 9.0 occurred offshore Sanriku, and the three operating reactor cores automatically shut down, using emergency power supply with diesel generator. However, tsunami swept this power plant 41 minutes later at 15:27, followed by total loss of electric power supply. Accordingly, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and coolant circulation system failed. An explosion caused by hydrogen buildup blew the upper-part off a concrete building housing of Unit 1 on 12 March at 15:36 in Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. In a continuing series, the similar hydrogen explosion took place at 11:01 on 14 March in Unit3, explosions of undetermined cause at 6:10 on 15 March in Unit 2 followed by decompression of pressure suppression pool, and at 6 on March 15 in Unit 4 followed by fire.

    Levels of radioactivity measured by Tokyo Electric Power at different points
    around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant (From New York Times)


    Click here to enlarge

  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.15 daytime - Average 16.55µR/hr, increasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.16 daytime - Average 15.51µR/hr, decreasing, apparently after reaching plateau.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.17 daytime - Average 13.43µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.18 daytime - Average 13.11µR/hr, increasing "Apparently leveling off to 13+alpha µR/hr, back to the normal level + circa 10%"
  • My home in Bunkyo-ku of Tokyo

    My home in Tokyo is located 210 km south west to Fukushima Nuclear facility.

    Pre-Accident Background (normal controls):
    1997.2.22-23 (24 hours). in Tokyo:
  • Summary text of measument: 1997.2.22-23 - Average 14.03µR/hr
    1998.7.11 (21 hours) in Tokyo:
  • Summary text of measument: 1998.7.11 - Average 14.59µR/hr
    2000.7.22-24 (55 hours) in Tokyo:
  • Summary text of measument: 2000.7.22-24 - Average 13.47µR/hr

  • After the Tohoku Earthquake and Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011:
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.20 overnight (15 hours) - Average 15.90µR/hr, already a bit increased but stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.21 daytime (9 hours) - Average 18.34µR/hr, increasing in the rainy afternoon, with north-east wind (maximum 60-point-average value over 21µR/hr).
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.21-22 Night-to-night (24 hours) - Average 21.30µR/hr, closing at elevated-value, stationary, all-day rainy, with largely north-to-northeast wind.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.22-23 Night-to-night (24 hours) - Average 21.89µR/hr, closing at elevated-value, stationary, all-day rainy, with largely north-to-northeast wind (maximum 60-point-average value over 23µR/hr).
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.23-24 Night-to-night (24 hours) - Average 18.84µR/hr, a bit decreased, all-day cloudy, with turbulant wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.24-25 Night-to-night (24 hours) - Average 18.59µR/hr, stationary, partly overcast, with turbulant but largely south wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.25-26 Night-to-next noon (16 hours) - Average 18.31µR/hr, stationary, clear sky, with largely northwest wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.26-27 Afternoon-to-next-day night (32 hours) - Average 15.59µR/hr, decreasing, clear sky, with turbulant slight breeze over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.27-28 Night-to-night (24 hours) - Average 15.19µR/hr, decreasing, clear sky, with largely southeast wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.28-29 Night-to-night (21 hours) - Average 15.15µR/hr, stationary, clear sky, with largely south wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.3.29-30 Night-to-night (27 hours) - Average 15.15µR/hr, stationary, clear sky, with largely north wind over Ibaraki Prefecture which is located between Fukushima and Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

    On April 3, my software Aw-Srad transits from DOS-version to Windows-version (Screen shot). Accordingly, the baseline may a bit go off the previous track (10% up).

  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.4 - Night-to-night (20 hours) Average 16.89µR/hr.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.4-4.8 - (5 days) Average 16.47µR/hr, decreasing, due to decay with 8-day half-life period of 131I since eventful March 21-23
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.10-4.28 - (18 days) Average 16.18µR/hr, decreasing, due to decay with 8-day half-life period of 131I since eventful March 21-23
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.26-5.3 - (7 days) Average 15.91µR/hr, decreasing, due to decay with 8-day half-life period of 131I since eventful March 21-23
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.8-5.9 - (1 day) Average 16.23µR/hr and Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.9-5.16 - (7 days) Average 15.82µR/hr, a temporary increase after the turning point in the midnight of May 6-7 (see below description in My retreat in Hayama)
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.15-5.22 - (7 days) Average 15.63µR/hr, back-to-normal "gradual decrease of 8-day half-life period of 131 mode."
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.21-5.28 - (7 days) Average 15.64µR/hr, apparently leveling-off, the problem is whether the curennt level of 15.6α - pre-disaster level of 14.0+/-α ≈ 1-2µR/hr reflects the remaining radiation by 137Caesium and 90Sr with long half-time,,,,, followed by
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.28-6.3 - (6 days) Average 15.64µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.6.3-6.10 - (7 days) Average 15.64µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.6.11-6.25 - (14 days) Average 15.50µR/hr, Oh still decreasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.6.25-7.8 - (14 days) Average 15.48µR/hr, a bit increasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.7.01-7.14 - (14 days) Average 15.47µR/hr, decreasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.7.16-8.12 - (circa 1 month) Average 15.36µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.8.13-8.29 - (circa 2 weeks) Average 15.34µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.8.30-9.5 - (6 days) Average 15.42µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.9.6-10.31 - (circa 50 days) Average 15.21µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.11.1. - (1 day) Average 15.01µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.11.4-12.29 - (circa 2 months) Average 15.36µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.12.29-2012.2.7 - (circa 1 month) Average 15.39µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2012.2.9.-4.4 - (circa 2 months) Average 15.37µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2012.4.5.-11.1. - (circa 7 month) Average 15.15µR/hr, slightly decreasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2012.11.3.-2013.2.22 - (circa 3.5 months) Average 15.29µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2013.2.25.-2013.7.9 - (circa 4.5 months) Average 15.25µR/hr, a bit decreasing
  • On 07.10, 2013, on the day after reporting by the media of the obituary of the man who battled Japan's nuclear meltdown, Masao Yoshida, my PC connected with the RM-60, actually Hitachi Flora 330W DG3 (Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz, Memory DDR PC2100 256+512=total 768MB), died abruptly. So I am setting up with new PC, actually Core 2 Duo, 2.6 GHz (second-hand Fujitsu Esprimo FMV-D5270 purchased on net auction). Await for a short period.
  • Summary graph of measument: 2013.7.18.-2013.7.21 - (circa 3 days, Control PC Transition, Phase-1) Average 14.87µR/hr, a bit decreasing
  • Summary graph of measument: 2013.7.22.-2013.8.21. - (circa 1 month, Control PC Transition, Phase-2: Unintentional reboot after local lightning strike and voltage reduction on August 21) Average 15.12µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2013.8.22.-2014.6.1. - (circa 9 months) Average 15.13µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2013.6.2.-2014.6.4. - (circa 2 days) Average 14.67µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2014.6.6.-2015.6.14. - (1 year) Average 14.86µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2015.6.14.-2016.6.26. - (1 year) Average 14.71µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2016.6.26.-2016.11.22. - (5 months) Average 14.62µR/hr, stationary
  • Summary graph of measument: 2016.11.24.-2017.613. - (6 months) Average 14.89µR/hr, stationary



  • Latest status in Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo

    My retreat in Hayama of Miura Peninsula

    My second country house in Hayama located on the south coast of Miura Peninsula, which is two-by-four wooden construction (Mitsui Home), is located 260 km south west to Fukushima Nuclear facility.

    Pre-Accident Background (normal controls) using DOS-version Aw-Srad:
    1995.12.30-31 (20 hours) in Hayama:
  • Summary graph of measument: 1995.12.30-31 - Average 10.70µR/hr
  • After the Tohoku Earthquake and Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011:
    2011.4.2-3 (26 hours) in Hayama using Windows-version Aw-Sradw through serial-to-USB connector to notebook PC (old NEC VersaPro VA50H), with calibration (105.00 --> 210.00) indicated by Bryan J. Boardman at Aware Electronics:
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.2-4.3 Night-to-noon (14 hours) - Average 14.15µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.8-4.9 Night-to-afternoon (15 hours) - Average 15.31µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.3-5.6 - (3.5 days) - Average 12.73µR/hr, decreasing, due to decay with 8-day half-life period of 131I since eventful March 21-23, until around 0:00 May 7 when abrupt increase was observed (see next graph, baseline is drifted upward). Although this is not significant for biological implication at all (microscopic change, circa 1 µR/hr), it remains academically interesting. My guess is that it is due to some artificial procedure, e.g., vent, etc. The most likely cause is the opening of the double-entry doors at the troubled No.1 reactor, which connects it to the adjacent turbine building, at around 8PM on Sunday (May 8), according to the news report of Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s statement. By opening the door, cooler air is ushered in from turbine building to the reactor building, then some radioactive material in the upper layer of air would be released from the ceiling severely damaged by hydrogen explosion to the atmosphere, they predicted (premeditated risk). However, timing (May 8 Sunday night) is a bit out of alignment from the beginning of increase of radioactivity in my measurement (May 6 Friday-to-May 7 Saturday midnight).




    Rapid shift on May 6-7 2011 observed at Hayama


  • Other Locations
    After the Tohoku Earthquake and Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011:

    Elite Motors of Miura Peninsula:
    This hard-boiled professional repair plant is located on the Miura Kaigan (shore) of the southeast edge of Miura Peninsula, that is facing Bousou Peninsula across Tokyo Bay (View from the 2nd floor of Elite Motors). The CEO/chief mechanics/purchasing agent, in short Swiss-army-knife type boss, aka Meister Sakamoto, is highly intelligent and honest person who is actually a bachelor of atomic energy engineering! (Tokai University, 1967).

  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.10 Afternoon-to-noon (20 hours) - Average 12.23µR/hr. Actually I was a bit astonished at this low value compared with the values measured in Tokyo lately and in Hayama the night before, all circa 15-16, since I had supposed the wind from Fukushima probably reachs this shore directly over Tokyo Bay, so the value would be higher than in other places.
  • Aobadai, Yokohama:

    2011.4.3 and 10 (1 hour) in the care home of my mother Miyoko in Aobadai of Yokohama City using Windows-version Aw-Sradw through serial-to-USB connector to notebook PC (old NEC VersaPro VA50H) with calibration indicated by Bryan J. Boardman at Aware Electronics:

  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.3 Afternoon (1 hour) - Average 16.09µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.4.10 Afternoon (1 hour) - Average 15.58µR/hr
  • Summary graph of measument: 2011.5.8 Afternoon (1 hour) - Average 16.45µR/hr

  • News Reports, Editorials and Comments on major scientific journals
    [Nature]
    - VIDEO (Or, visit http://blogs.nature.com/news/2011/04/video_the_fukushima_nuclear_cr_1.html):
    The Fukushima Nuclear Crisis - April 21, 2011
    - The meltdown that wasn't. Vol 471 (24 March 2011), 417-418.
    - Lessons from the past (Editorial). Vol 471 (31 March 2011), 547.
    - Concerns over nuclear energy are legitimate (Comment). Vol 471 (31 March 2011), 549.
    - Radioactivity spreads in Japan. Vol 471 (31 March 2011), 555-556.
    - Japan faces up to failure of its earthquake preparations. Vol 471 (31 March 2011), 556-557.
    - Chernobyl’s legacy. Vol 471 (31 March 2011), 562-565.
    - Fukushima health risks scrutinized. Vol 472 (7 April 2011), 13-14.
    - Japan’s long road ahead. Vol 472 (7 April 2011), 14.
    - US radiation study sparks debate. Vol 472 (7 April 2011), 15.
    - A little knowledge (Editorial). Vol 472 (14 April 2011), 135.
    The Japanese authorities have done well in releasing copious amounts of crude data on the nuclear crisis. But it is imperative for the data to be provided in more meaningful and user-friendly ways.
    - Japan faces power struggle. Vol 472 (14 April 2011), 143-144.
    - Radiation release will hit marine life. Vol 472 (14 April 2011), 145-146.
    - Fukushima set for epic clean-up. Vol 472 (14 April 2011), 146-147.
    - Laurent Stricker (Q&A):- Nuclear safety chief calls for reform. Vol 472 (21 April 2011), 274.
    After Fukushima, I believe that safety reviews should also consider the risk of accidents at several reactors at the same site at the same time. Often the current plans are only done for an accident in one reactor at a site.
    - A watchdog with bite (Editorial). Vol 472 (28 April 2011), 389.
    - Nuclear accidents are politically and commercially sensitive events, and it is understandable that countries do not want to cede control of their management to an international body. And nor should they: plant operators are often the best qualified to handle an emergency, and nations must take the responsibility for protecting their citizens.
    - Nuclear agency faces reform calls. Vol 472 (28 April 2011), 397-399.
    Yet seeking data in the middle of a nuclear emergency is not easy. "If you say to a reactor operator: 'Your reactor is melting down, please do not forget to fill in form 33b and fax it to the IAEA', they're not going to do it," says Andreas Persbo, a specialist in arms control at VERTIC, an independent organization based in London that verifies compliance to international agreements. But he adds that if member states were willing, automated systems could be used to send the IAEA valuable real-time data on conditions at a nuclear plant.
    - Reactors, residents and risk. Vol 472 (28 April 2011), 400-401.
    An analysis carried out by Nature and Columbia University, New York, shows that two-thirds of the world's 211 power plants have more people living within a 30-kilometre radius than the 172,000 people living within 30 kilometres of the Fukushima Daiichi plant, who have been forced or advised to leave. Some 21 plants have populations larger than 1 million within that radius, and six have populations larger than 3 million.
    - Shake-up time for Japanese seismology by Robert J. Geller (Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan). Vol 472 (28 April 2011), 407-409.
    BASELESS PREDICTION LAW - By the mid-1970s, public discussion of the supposedly imminent Tokai earthquake reached quasi-panic levels. This was exploited by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and university scientists, who persuaded the Japanese parliament to enact the Large-Scale Earthquake Countermeasures Act (LECA) in 1978. This law in effect requires the JMA to operate a 24/7 monitoring system to detect precursors indicating that the will occur within up to three days. If and when signals thought to be precursors are ever observed, a panel of five geophysicists will review the data, the JMA director will inform the prime minister, and the cabinet will then declare a state of emergency, which will stop almost all activity in a wide area around the Tokai district. This law, which has no precedent in any other country, presumes of course that reliable precursors exist. In particular on the basis of one report of a geodetic precursor of an earthquake in Japan in 1944, geodetic slip is the main target of the JMA observations. The 1944 data, taken far from the epicentral region, were interpreted as possibly suggesting uplift of a few centimetres due to slow slip on a deep part of the fault shortly before the main shock. Unfortunately, the data were measured using antiquated surveying techniques, and are subject to considerable uncertainty. Nothing of this type is ever been observed using GPS devices or other modern measurement techniques. (Akio' comment: I will not accept any copyright-claim by the voluntary net police other than by the author or the publisher - In fact, all the supposed percursors were artefacts. Great wall of China, Battleship Yamato, Counter-tsunami gigantic coast levee of Sanriku shore, and LECA! ,,,, consuming taxpayer's money in vain,,,,,just sigh)
    - Battle of Yucca Mountain rages on. Vol 473 (May 17 2011), 266-267.
    Nevertheless, the nation will need to find a permanent repository (for spent nuclear fuel) at some point, and Yucca Mountain, it seems, is down but not out.
    - Fukushima deep in hot water by Geoff Brumfiel and David Cyranoski. Vol 474 (June 9 2011), 135-136.
    Kenji Takeshita, a specialist in water treatment at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, says that although a zeolite filtration system worked at Three Mile Island, the water pumped through it was fresh. “This time the water is full of salt,” he says. The chemical similarity between sodium and caesium ions may make the zeolite extraction process far less efficient, he says.
    - Full transparency (Editorial). Vol 474 (16 June 2011), 251-252.
    Nations should release global nuclear-monitoring data to academics and the public.
    - No fallout legacy for Japan's farms (News) by David Cyranoski. Vol 475 (14 July 2011), 154.
    But early studies of how the radiation has accumulated in plants and the soil now suggest that farmers in much of the region can go back to work.
    - Earthquakes: The lessons of Tohoku-Oki (News and Views) by J-P Avouac. Vol 475 (21 July 2011), 300-301.
    - Coseismic and postseismic slip of the 2011 magnitude-9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake by Shinzaburo Ozawa, et al (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0811, Japan). Vol. 475 (21 July 2011), 373-376.
    - Plutonium plans in limbo (News) by Edwin Cartlidge. Vol.476 (August 11 2011), 476.
    - Earthquakes from the ocean: Danger zones by Naomi Lubick. Vol.476 (August 25 2011), 391-392.
    Some of the most powerful earthquakes emanate from remote ocean-floor faults. Geophysicists are now laying networks of sensors to keep tabs on these hidden killers.
    - Fukushima impact is still hazy by David Cyranoski & Geoff Brumfiel. Vol.477 (September 8 2011), 139-140.
    Clean-up is the top priority, but Fukushima also offers a unique research opportunity, says Mousseau (Timothy Mousseau, an ecologist at the University of South Carolina in Columbia), who has worked extensively at Chernobyl. Because of Soviet secrecy, researchers missed a crucial window of opportunity in studying the Ukrainian crisis. “Japan offers us an opportunity to dig in right off the bat and really develop a profound understanding,” he says.
    - Fallout forensics hike radiation toll (News) by Goeff Brumfiel. Vol 478 (October 27 2011), 435-436.
    Global data on Fukushima challenge Japanese estimates. ,,,,The new model shows that Fukushima released 3.5 × 1016 Bq caesium-137, roughly twice the official government figure, and half the release from Chernobyl. ,,, The new analysis also claims that the spent fuel being stored in the unit 4 pool emitted copious quantities of caesium-137. ,,, The latest analysis also presents evidence that xenon-133 began to vent from Fukushima Daiichi immediately after the quake, and before the tsunami swamped the area.
    - Drilling ship to probe Japanese quake zone (News) by Nicola Jones. Vol479 (November 3 2011), 16.

    - Critical mass (Editorial). Vol 480 (December 15 2011), 291.
    This all points to a problem in Japan that predates Fukushima and seems to afflict every Japanese regime: the absence of a strong and independent scientific voice to advise the government.
    - Nuclear energy: Nationalize the Fukushima Daiichi atomic plant by Tomoyuki Taira & Yukio Hatoyama. Vol 480 (December 15 2011), 313-314.
    Particularly important is finding out whether the ‘worst-case’ scenario occurred: that is, (1) whether self-sustaining nuclear reactions were re-ignited in the core (‘recriticality’), creating more fission products and heat damage; (2) whether the explosions that rocked the plant days after the earthquake were nuclear in origin, releasing radioactive metals from damaged fuel rods; and (3) whether molten fuel has broken through the reactor’s base, threatening environmental contamination.
    My comment about the submission by the world-wide notorious former PM Hatoyama of Japan, aka "loopy" PM among the White House staff, : (1) The detection of radionuclide chlorine-38 has been already reported by the Japanese news media and accoding to the report investigated enough, (2) This suggestion of nuclear explosions are quite new, and maybe pure propaganda with no substantial evidence, by the abandoned politician, (3) so-called "melt-through" is certainly enough a probability from the beginning, say since last March among knowledgeable sources, judging from scientific common sense. The only originality here is suggestion of the possibility of nuclear explosions. As far as I watch the TV images, there was no flare-up and mushroom cloud. I do need the consultation with the military expert, say the specialist of theater nuclear weapons. Without sophisticated implosion mechanism, are three nuclear explosions possible? Just curious (ah/AH).
    - Get tough on nuclear safety (Editorial). Vol 481 (January 12 2012), 113.

    - France 'imagines the unimaginable' (News Focus). Vol 481 (January 12 2012), 121-122.

    - Tsunami simulations scare Japan (News). Vol 484 (April 19 2012), 296-297.

    - Fukushima’s doses tallied (News). Vol 485 (May 24 2012), 423-424.

    Few people will develop cancer as a consequence of being exposed to the radioactive material that spewed from Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant last year - and those who do will never know for sure what caused their disease. These conclusions are based on two comprehensive, independent assessments of the radiation doses received by Japanese citizens, as well as by the thousands of workers who battled to bring the shattered nuclear reactors under control. ,,, The first report, seen exclusively by Nature, was produced by a subcommittee of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) in Vienna, and covers a wide swathe of issues related to all aspects of the accident. ,,, “There may be some increase in cancer risk that may not be detectable statistically,” ,,, Tatsuhiko Kodama, head of the radioisotope centre at the University of Tokyo and an outspoken critic of the government, questions the reports’ value. “I think international organizations should stop making hasty reports based on very short visits to Japan that don’t allow them to see what is happening locally,” he says.
    [My comment] Actually, Kodama is almunus of Tokyo University School of Medicine one year later, and was universally known as a die-hard activist and top Stalinist of Japan Communist Party's youth organization Minsei. I don't know if he continues to be active member and potentially undercover partisan of JCP, though, obviously he maintains his potential energy as an agitator.
    - In from the cold (Editorial). Vol 485 (May 24 2012), 415-416.
    this week UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)’s working committee on Fukushima has been able to provide a comprehensive - and seemingly reassuring - view of radiation exposure among workers at the plant. That, combined with the available data on public exposure, indicates to many experts that the health effects from the accident will be minimal.
    - Troubling thoughts (Editorial). Vol 493 (Jan 17 2013), 271.

    - Fukushima: Fallout of fear (Feature) by Geoff Brumfiel. Vol 493 (Jan 17 2013), 290-293.

    - Fukushima offers real-time ecolab (News) by Ewen Callaway. Vol.499 (July 16 2013, pdf available), 265-266.
    Other scientists take issue with the reports of ecological harms from Fukushima. They say that Otaki’s research is flawed, because wing shape and other butterfly traits vary naturally with geography. “This study’s sensational claims should not be used to scare the local population into the erroneous conclusion that their exposures to these relatively low environmental radiation doses put them at significant health risk,” Timothy Jorgensen, a molecular radiation biologist at Georgetown University in Washington DC, wrote in a comment on Otaki’s 2012 paper.
    - Nuclear error (Editorial). Vol.501 (September 5 2013, pdf available), 5-6.
    Japan should bring in international help to study and mitigate the Fukushima crisis. ,,,, Given the government’s past actions and information policies, one might doubt whether it would be any more competent than TEPCO at managing the situation and communicating it to the public. The United States, Russia, France and the United Kingdom - to name but a few - all have know-how in nuclear engineering, clean-up and radiation health that would serve Japan well. An international alliance on research and clean-up would help to restore shattered public trust in the usefulness and effectiveness of monitoring and crisis-mitigationht doubt whether it would be any more competent than TEPCO at managing the situation and communicating it to the public. ,,,
    - Five years on from Fukushima (Comment) by Masahiro Sugiyama, et al. Vol.531 (March 3 2016, pdf available), 29-31.
    -------------------------------------------
    [Science]
    - Devastating Earthquake Defied Expectations. VOL 331 (18 MARCH 2011), 1375-1376.
    - Nuclear Power's Global Fallout. VOL 331 (25 MARCH 2011) , 1502-1503.
    - Radiation Risks Outlined by Bombs, Weapons Work, and Accidents. - Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward. VOL 331 (25 MARCH 2011), 1504-1505.
    - Current Designs Address Safety Problems in Fukushima Reactors. VOL 331 (25 MARCH 2011), 1506.
    - Fukushima Cleanup Will Be Drawn Out and Costly. VOL 331 (25 MARCH 2011), 1507.
    - Scientific Consensus on Great Quake Came Too Late. Vol 332 (1 April 2011), 22-23.
    - Pool at Stricken Reactor #4 Holds Answers to Key Safety Questions. Vol 332 (1 April 2011), 24-25.
    - Fukushima Radiation Creates Unique Test of Marine Life's Hardiness. Vol 332 (15 April 2011), 292.
    - Fukushima Revives The Low-Dose Debate. Vol 332 (May 20 2011), 908-910.
    - Crippled Reactors to Get Cooled and Wrapped. Vol 332 (May 20 2011), 910.
    - Seismic Crystal Ball Proving Mostly Cloudy Around the World. Vol 332 (May 20 2011), 912-913.
    - Disaster Preparation: Lessons from Japan (Letters) by Coleman, et al. Vol 332 (June 17 2011), 1379.
    We believe that lack of understanding of radiation and its effects resulted in unnecessary fear.,, If evacuation is maintained for too long, there can be serious health (including mental health), family, and economic consequences,,,
    - A Tale of Two Earthquakes (Perspectives) by Heki (Hokkaido University). Vol 332 (June 17 2011), 1390-1391.
    - Displacement Above the Hypocenter of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by Mariko Sato, et al (Japan Coast Guard, University of Tokyo). Vol 332 (June 17 2011), 1395.
    - The 2011 Magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake: Mosaicking the Megathrust from Seconds to Centuries (Reports) by Mark Simons, et al. Vol 332 (June 17 2011), 1421-1425.
    - Shallow Dynamic Overshoot and Energetic Deep Rupture in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake (Reports) by Satoshi Ide, et al. Vol 332 (June 17 2011), 1426-1429.
    - Light at the End of the Radwaste Disposal Tunnel Could Be Real by Richard Kerr. Vol 333 (July 8 2011), 1150-152.
    A long run of failures could finally drive the United States to follow other countries' lead and accept radioactive waste disposal as the sociotechnological problem that it is.
    - Fukushima Begins 30-Year Odyssey in Radiation Health (Interview: Seiji Yasumura). Vol 333 (August 5 2011), 684-685.
    - Japan's electric woes have researchers sweating (News). Vol 333 (August 5 2011), 685.
    - Fukushima research needs world's support by Akira Akabayashi (Letters). Vol 333 (August 5 2011), 696.
    - The Overlooked Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle by Allison M. Macfarlane (Policy Forum). Vol 333 (September 1 2011), 1225-1226.
    - Preventing the Next Fukushima by Natthew Bunn and Olli Heinonen (Policy Forum). Vol.333 (September 16 2011), 1580-1581.
    While this year's disaster at Japan's Fukushima Dai'ichi plant, the worst since Chernobyl in 1986, was caused by the one-two punch of a huge earthquake followed by an immense tsunami - a disaster unlikely to occur in many locations - it revealed technical and institutional weaknesses that must be fixed around the world. If nuclear power is to grow on the scale required to be a significant part of the solution to global climate disruption or scarcity of fossil fuels, major steps are needed to rebuild confidence that nuclear facilities will be safe from accidents and secure against attacks.
    - Worldwide lessons from 11 March by Koji Omi (founder and chairman of the Science and Technology in Society forum and former Japanese Minister of Science and Technology Poicy and former Japanese Minister of Finance) (Editorial). Vol.335 (March 9 2012), 1147.
    It has been 1 year since a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck the northeast coast of Japan, a disaster that continues to be analyzed by many people around the world, from different perspectives. There are important lessons to be learned as Japan faces critical decisions not only about rebuilding but also in planning for the nation's future energy needs - lessons that are also relevant to many other countries.
    - One Year After the Devastation, Tohoku Designs Its Renewal by Dennis Normile (NewsFocus). Vol.335 (March 9 2012), 1164-1166.
    Taking stock of the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, experts are planning communities that should be more resilient the next time disaster strikes.
    - Radioactive Limbo by Dennis Normile (NewsFocus). Vol.335 (March 9 2012), 1165.
    While the tsunami-ravaged Tohoku region plans its recovery (see main text), contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi power plant are a no-man's land that may remain deserted for decades.
    - Nuclear Ambivalence No More? by Dennis Normile (NewsFocus). Vol.335 (March 9 2012), 1166.
    The crisis at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that riveted the world last spring has had a potent effect on the industry's future. With one exception, it simultaneously strengthened opposition in nations already wary of nuclear power and made those committed to building - and exporting - nuclear reactors all the more determined to continue their programs.
    - Nuclear Fuel in a Reactor Accident by Peter C. Burns, et al (Reviews, abstract available). Vol.335 (March 9 2012), 1184-1188.

    - Growing Distaste for Nuclear Power Dims Prospects for R&D (News and Analysis, abstract). Vol.336 (June 8 2012), 1220-1221.

    - Fishing for Answers off Fukushima by Ken O. Buesseler (Perspectives, abstract). Vol.338 (October 26 2012), 480-482.

    - Cooling a Hot Zone (Japan Disaster) by Dennis Normile (News Focus, abstract). Vol 339 (March 1 2013), 1028-1029.

    - Insistence on Gathering Real Data Confirms Low Radiation Exposures (Tohoku Disaster) by Dennis Normile (News Focus, abstract). Vol 340 (May 10 2013), 678-679.

    - Geophysics: Dangers of Being Thin and Weak by Kelin Wang and Masataka Kinoshita (Perspective, abstract). Vol 342 (Dec 6 2013), 1178-1180.
    - Structure and Composition of the Plate-Boundary Slip Zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake by Frederick M. Chester, et al (Reports, abstract). Vol 342 (Dec 6 2013), 1208-1211.
    - Low Coseismic Shear Stress on the Tohoku-Oki Megathrust Determined from Laboratory Experiments by Kohtaro Ujiie, et al (Reports, abstract). Vol 342 (Dec 6 2013), 1211-1214.
    - Low Coseismic Friction on the Tohoku-Oki Fault Determined from Temperature Measurements by P. M. Fulton, et al (Reports, abstract). Vol 342 (Dec 6 2013), 1214-1217.

    - The trouble with tritium by Dennis Normile (News/ In Depth, abstract). Vol 346 (December 12 2014), 1278.

    - Japan's nuclear renaissance dogged by waste challenge by Dennis Normile (News/ In Depth, abstract). Vol 347 (January 23 2015), 361.

    - Muons probe Fukushima's ruins (News/ In Depth, abstract). Vol 347 (March 6 2015), 1052-1053.

    - Slow burn by Dennis Normile (News/ Feature, abstract). Vol. 351 (March 04 2016), 1018-1020.

    - Trial by meltdown by Timothy Hornyak (News/ Feature, abstract). Vol. 351 (March 04 2016), 1020-1021.

    - Epidemic of fear by Dennis Normile (News/ Feature, abstract). Vol. 351 (March 04 2016), 1022-1023.

    - After Fukushima: Collaboration model by Noboru Takamura et al (Letter), After Fukushima: Creating a dialogue by Makoto Miyazaki et al (Letter), and After Fukushima: Addressing anxiety by Sanae Midorikawa et al (Letter). Vol.352 (May 6 2016), 666-667.

    - Near miss at Fukushima is a warning for U.S. by Richard Stone (News/ In Depth, abstract). Vol. 352 (May 27 2016), 1039-1040.


    --------------------------------------------------

    Sources for Cross Examination
    I would recommend you to cross-examine my data with,

    Denphone Tokyo Office Geiger Counter at Azabu Juban, Summary graph of measument 3.22-29 and 3.21-24 (By courtesy of Denphone).

    Measurement at the parking lot of Odawara Municipal Hospital by K. Maeda, radiology technician of our hospital, using stand-alone Geiger counter.

    All graphs (mine, Denphone and Okada's) reveal two separate peaks at March 15-16 and March 21-24 in agreement, the former being sharp rise and fall, whereas the latter is gentle ascending slope and looooong downhill.

    External Links

    Realtime background radiation monitor in Clarkdale, Arizona, USA by Del Winiecki, who too is using the same setting, i.e., RM-60 with Aw-sradw and Aw-graph.

    Internet Radiation Monitoring Demonstration Project by Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

    Cosmic Ray Monitor by Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, at Rosman, NC.

    "Thank you, America - Unequivocal proof of our alliance and friendship", advocacy ad which appeared on June 11 2011 on Sankei Newspaper in Japan.

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    DISCLAIMER: This post is not financially supported by the industry related to my current assignment to non-profit hospital or by the sited company. The views expressed here are those of the author Akio Hasegawa and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of any institutions in Japan. Citations of trade names do not constitute an endorsement of the products. Feedback is, as always, encouraged. Use the address DrHASEGAWA@aol.com for all correspondence regarding this column.
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