物理モデルリスト

2016年12月10日

はじめに

物理モデルリストの表示について。

使用バージョン

OpenFOAM 4.x (blueCFD)

物理モデルリスト

OpenFOAM に用意されている物理モデルとその説明のリストが必要な場合がある。各物理モデルの説明はソースコードのコメントの Discription に書かれているので、それを並べられればよい。以下のようなスクリプトでリストが得られる (抜けや余分なものがあるかも)。標準ソルバー独自のものもあるので、それも表示している。説明がないものもある。抽象クラスや補助的なクラスなども含まれる。fvOptions のものは除いてある。

show_models

#!/bin/sh
COUNT=0
for DIR in $FOAM_SRC $FOAM_SOLVERS ; do
    cd $DIR
    for MODEL_PATH in `find | sort -f | grep Model | grep -v FvPatch | grep -vi include | grep "\.H$" | grep -v fvOptions | xargs -I {} dirname {} | sed -e "s%^./%%" | uniq` ; do
        FILES=$MODEL_PATH/`basename $MODEL_PATH`*.H
        for FILE in $FILES ; do
            if [ -f $FILE ] ; then
                echo $MODEL_PATH
                echo
                cat $FILE | awk '
                    /\\\*/ {exit}
                    /SourceFiles/ {exit}
                    a == 1 {print}
                    /Description/ {a = 1} 
                '
                echo
                COUNT=`expr $COUNT + 1`
                break
            fi
        done
    done
done
echo Total $COUNT

実行結果

combustionModels/combustionModel

    Base class for combustion models


combustionModels/diffusion

    Simple diffusion-based combustion model based on the principle mixed is
    burnt. Additional parameter C is used to distribute the heat release rate
    in time.


combustionModels/FSD


    Flame Surface Dennsity (FDS) combustion model.

    The fuel source term is given by mgft*pc*omegaFuelBar.

    where:
          mgft: filtered flame area.
          pc:   probability of the combustion progress.
          omegaFuelBar: filtered consumption speed per unit of flame area.

    pc is considered from the IFC solution.
    omegaFuelBar is calculated solving a relaxation equation which tends to
    omegaEq. This omegaEq is obtained from the flamelet solution for
    different strain rates and fit using a expential distribution.

    The spacial distribution of the consumption speed (omega) is obtained also
    from a strained flamelet solution and it is assumed to have a guassian
    distribution.

    If the grid resolution is not enough to resolve the flame, the consumption
    speed distribution is linearly thickened conserving the overall heat
    release.

    If the turbulent fluctuation of the mixture fraction at the sub-grid level
    is large (>1e-04) then a beta pdf is used for filtering.

    At the moment the flame area combustion model is only fit to work in a LES
    frame work. In RAS the subgrid fluctuation has to be solved by an extra
    transport equation.


combustionModels/FSD/reactionRateFlameAreaModels/consumptionSpeed

    Correlation function for laminar consumption speed obtained from flamelet
    solution at increasing strain rates.


combustionModels/FSD/reactionRateFlameAreaModels/reactionRateFlameArea

    Abstract class for reaction rate per flame area unit


combustionModels/FSD/reactionRateFlameAreaModels/relaxation

    Consumption rate per unit of flame area obtained from a relaxation equation


combustionModels/infinitelyFastChemistry

    Simple infinitely fast chemistry combustion model based on the principle
    mixed is burnt. Additional parameter C is used to distribute the heat
    release rate.in time


combustionModels/laminar

    Laminar combustion model.


combustionModels/noCombustion

    Dummy combustion model for 'no combustion'


combustionModels/PaSR

    Partially stirred reactor combustion model.  The model calculates a finite
    rate, based on both turbulence and chemistry time scales.  Depending on
    mesh resolution, the Cmix parameter can be used to scale the turbulence
    mixing time scale.


combustionModels/psiCombustionModel/psiChemistryCombustion

    Compressibility-based chemistry model wrapper for combustion models


combustionModels/psiCombustionModel/psiCombustionModel

    Combustion models for compressibility-based thermodynamics


combustionModels/psiCombustionModel/psiThermoCombustion

    Compressibility-based thermo model wrapper for combustion models


combustionModels/rhoCombustionModel/rhoChemistryCombustion

    Density-based chemistry model wrapper for combustion models


combustionModels/rhoCombustionModel/rhoCombustionModel

    Combustion models for rho-based thermodynamics


combustionModels/rhoCombustionModel/rhoThermoCombustion

    Density-based thermo model wrapper for combustion models


combustionModels/singleStepCombustion

    Base class for combustion models using singleStepReactingMixture.


finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/porosityModel/DarcyForchheimer

    Darcy-Forchheimer law porosity model, given by:

        \f[
            S = - (\mu d + \frac{\rho |U|}{2} f) U
        \f]

    where
    \vartable
        d        | Darcy coefficient [1/m2]
        f        | Forchheimer coefficient [1/m]
    \endvartable

    Since negative Darcy/Forchheimer parameters are invalid, they can be used
    to specify a multiplier (of the max component).

    The orientation of the porous region is defined with the same notation as
    a co-ordinate system, but only a Cartesian co-ordinate system is valid.


finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/porosityModel/fixedCoeff

    Fixed coefficient form of porosity model

        \f[
            S = - \rho_ref (\alpha + \beta |U|) U
        \f]

    In the case of compressible flow, a value for the reference density is
    required


finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/porosityModel/porosityModel

    Top level model for porosity models


finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/porosityModel/powerLaw

    Power law porosity model, given by:

        \f[
            S = - \rho C_0 |U|^{(C_1 - 1)} U
        \f]

    where
    \vartable
        C_0      | model linear coefficient
        C_1      | model exponent coefficient
    \endvartable



finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/SRF/SRFModel/rpm

    Basic SRF model whereby angular velocity is specified in terms of
    a (global) axis and revolutions-per-minute [rpm]


finiteVolume/cfdTools/general/SRF/SRFModel/SRFModel

    Namespace for single rotating frame (SRF) models

Class
    Foam::SRF::SRFModel

Description
    Top level model for single rotating frame
    - Steady state only - no time derivatives included


lagrangian/coalCombustion/submodels/surfaceReactionModel/COxidationDiffusionLimitedRate

    Diffusion limited rate surface reaction model for coal parcels. Limited to:

        C(s) + Sb*O2 -> CO2

    where Sb is the stoichiometry of the reaction


lagrangian/coalCombustion/submodels/surfaceReactionModel/COxidationHurtMitchell

    Char oxidation model given by Hurt and Mitchell:

    Based on the reference:
        Hurt R. and Mitchell R., "Unified high-temperature char combustion
        kinetics for a suite of coals of various rank", 24th Symposium in
        Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1992, p 1243-1250

    Model specifies the rate of char combustion.

        C(s) + Sb*O2 -> CO2

    where Sb is the stoichiometry of the reaction

    Model validity:
        Gas temperature: Tc > 1500 K
        Particle sizes:  75 um -> 200 um
        Pox > 0.3 atm


lagrangian/coalCombustion/submodels/surfaceReactionModel/COxidationIntrinsicRate

    Intrinsic char surface reaction mndel

        C(s) + Sb*O2 -> CO2

    where Sb is the stoichiometry of the reaction


lagrangian/coalCombustion/submodels/surfaceReactionModel/COxidationKineticDiffusionLimitedRate

    Kinetic/diffusion limited rate surface reaction model for coal parcels.
    Limited to:

        C(s) + Sb*O2 -> CO2

    where Sb is the stoichiometry of the reaction


lagrangian/coalCombustion/submodels/surfaceReactionModel/COxidationMurphyShaddix

    Limited to C(s) + O2 -> CO2

    Loosely based on the reference:
        Murphy, J. J., Shaddix, C. R., Combustion kinetics of coal chars
        in oxygen-enriched environments, Combustion and Flame 144,
        pp710-729, 2006


lagrangian/distributionModels/distributionModel

    A library of runtime-selectable distribution models.

    Returns a sampled value given the expectation (nu) and variance (sigma^2)

    Current distribution models include:
    - exponential
    - fixedValue
    - general
    - multi-normal
    - normal
    - Rosin-Rammler
    - uniform

    The distributionModel is tabulated in equidistant nPoints, in an interval.
    These values are integrated to obtain the cumulated distribution model,
    which is then used to change the distribution from unifrom to
    the actual distributionModel.


lagrangian/distributionModels/exponential

    exponential distribution model


lagrangian/distributionModels/fixedValue

    Returns a fixed value


lagrangian/distributionModels/general

    general distribution model


lagrangian/distributionModels/multiNormal

    A multiNormal distribution model

    \verbatim
        model = sum_i strength_i * exp(-0.5*((x - expectation_i)/variance_i)^2 )
    \endverbatim



lagrangian/distributionModels/normal

    A normal distribution model

    \verbatim
        model = strength * exp(-0.5*((x - expectation)/variance)^2 )
    \endverbatim

    strength only has meaning if there's more than one distribution model


lagrangian/distributionModels/RosinRammler

    Rosin-Rammler distributionModel

   \f[
       cumulative model =
           (1.0 - exp( -(( x - d0)/d)^n )
         / (1.0 - exp( -((d1 - d0)/d)^n )
   \f]



lagrangian/distributionModels/uniform

    Uniform/equally-weighted distribution model


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/BinaryCollisionModel/BinaryCollisionModel

    Templated DSMC particle collision class


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/BinaryCollisionModel/LarsenBorgnakkeVariableHardSphere

    Variable Hard Sphere BinaryCollision Model with Larsen Borgnakke internal
    energy redistribution.  Based on the INELRS subroutine in Bird's DSMC0R.FOR


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/BinaryCollisionModel/NoBinaryCollision

    No collison BinaryCollision Model


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/BinaryCollisionModel/VariableHardSphere

    Variable Hard Sphere BinaryCollision Model


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/InflowBoundaryModel/FreeStream

    Inserting new particles across the faces of a all patched of type
    "patch" for a free stream.  Uniform values number density, temperature
    and velocity sourced face-by-face from the boundaryT and boundaryU fields
    of the cloud.


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/InflowBoundaryModel/InflowBoundaryModel

    Templated inflow boundary model class


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/InflowBoundaryModel/NoInflow

    Not inserting any particles


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/WallInteractionModel/MaxwellianThermal

    Wall interaction setting microscopic velocity to a random one
    drawn from a Maxwellian distribution corresponding to a specified
    temperature


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/WallInteractionModel/MixedDiffuseSpecular

    Wall interaction setting microscopic velocity to a random one
    drawn from a Maxwellian distribution corresponding to a specified
    temperature for a specified fraction of collisions, and reversing
    the wall-normal component of the particle velocity for the
    remainder.


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/WallInteractionModel/SpecularReflection

    Reversing the wall-normal component of the particle velocity


lagrangian/DSMC/submodels/WallInteractionModel/WallInteractionModel

    Templated wall interaction model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/CollisionModel

    Templated collision model class.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/NoCollision

    Place holder for 'none' option


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/PairModel/PairModel

    Templated pair interaction class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/PairModel/PairSpringSliderDashpot

    Pair forces between particles colliding with a spring, slider, damper model


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/WallModel/WallLocalSpringSliderDashpot

    Forces between particles and walls, interacting with a spring,
    slider, damper model


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/WallModel/WallModel

    Templated wall interaction class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/WallModel/WallSpringSliderDashpot

    Forces between particles and walls, interacting with a spring,
    slider, damper model


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/CollisionModel/PairCollision/WallSiteData

    Stores the patch ID and templated data to represent a collision
    with a wall to be passed to the wall model.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/DispersionModel/DispersionModel



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/DispersionModel/NoDispersion

    Place holder for 'none' option


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/CellZoneInjection

    Injection positions specified by a particle number density within a cell
    set.

    User specifies:
      - Number density of particles in cell set (effective)
      - Total mass to inject
      - Initial parcel velocity

    Properties:
      - Parcel diameters obtained by PDF model
      - All parcels introduced at SOI


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/ConeInjection

    Multi-point cone injection model.

    User specifies:
      - time of start of injection
      - list of injector positions and directions (along injection axes)
      - number of parcels to inject per injector
      - parcel velocities
      - inner and outer half-cone angles

    Properties:
      - Parcel diameters obtained by distribution model


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/ConeNozzleInjection

    Cone injection.

    User specifies:
      - time of start of injection
      - injector position
      - direction (along injection axis)
      - parcel flow rate
      - inner and outer half-cone angles

    Properties:
      - Parcel diameters obtained by size distribution model.

      - Parcel velocity is calculated as:
        - Constant velocity:
          \verbatim
          U = \
          \endverbatim

        - Pressure driven velocity:
          \verbatim
          U = sqrt(2*(Pinj - Pamb)/rho)
          \endverbatim

        - Flow rate and discharge:
          \verbatim
          U = V_dot/(A*Cd)
          \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/FieldActivatedInjection

    Injection at specified positions, with the conditions:

    For injection to be allowed
      \verbatim
      factor*referenceField[celli] >= thresholdField[celli]
      \endverbatim
      where:
        - \c referenceField is the field used to supply the look-up values
        - \c thresholdField supplies the values beyond which the injection is
            permitted.

    Limited to a user-supplied number of injections per injector location


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/InflationInjection

    Inflation injection - creates new particles by splitting existing
    particles within in a set of generation cells, then inflating them
    to a target diameter within the generation cells and an additional
    set of inflation cells.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/InjectionModel

    Templated injection model class.

    The injection model nominally describes the parcel:
    - position
    - diameter
    - velocity
    In this case, the fullyDescribed() flag should be set to 0 (false). When
    the parcel is then added to the cloud, the remaining properties are
    populated using values supplied in the constant properties.

    If, however, all of a parcel's properties are described in the model, the
    fullDescribed() flag should be set to 1 (true).



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/KinematicLookupTableInjection

    Particle injection sources read from look-up table. Each row corresponds to
    an injection site.

    \verbatim
    (
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot   // injector 1
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot   // injector 2
        ...
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot   // injector N
    );
    \endverbatim

    where:
    \plaintable
        x, y, z | global cartesian co-ordinates [m]
        u, v, w | global cartesian velocity components [m/s]
        d       | diameter [m]
        rho     | density [kg/m3]
        mDot    | mass flow rate [kg/m3]
    \endplaintable


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/ManualInjection

    Manual injection.

    User specifies:
      - Total mass to inject
      - Parcel positions in file \c positionsFile
      - Initial parcel velocity

    Properties:
      - Parcel diameters obtained by distribution model
      - All parcels introduced at SOI


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/NoInjection

    Place holder for 'none' option


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/PatchFlowRateInjection

    Patch injection, by using patch flow rate to determine concentration and
    velocity.

    User specifies:
      - Total mass to inject
      - Name of patch
      - Injection duration
      - Injection target concentration/carrier volume flow rate

    Properties:
      - Initial parcel velocity given by local flow velocity
      - Parcel diameters obtained by distribution model
      - Parcels injected randomly across the patch


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/InjectionModel/PatchInjection

    Patch injection.

    User specifies:
      - Total mass to inject
      - Name of patch
      - Injection duration
      - Initial parcel velocity
      - Injection volume flow rate

    Properties:
      - Parcel diameters obtained by distribution model
      - Parcels injected randomly across the patch


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/LocalInteraction

    Patch interaction specified on a patch-by-patch basis


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/MultiInteraction

    Runs multiple patch interaction models in turn. Takes dictionary
    where all the subdictionaries are the interaction models.

        // Exit upon first successful interaction or continue doing other
        // models. Returned nteraction status will be true if there has been any
        // interaction (so logical or)
        oneInteractionOnly true;

        model1
        {
            patchInteractionModel coincidentBaffleInteraction;
            coincidentBaffleInteractionCoeffs
            {
                coincidentPatches
                (
                    (pipetteWall_A pipetteCyclic_half0)
                    (pipetteWall_B pipetteCyclic_half1)
                );
            }
        }
        model2
        {
            patchInteractionModel localInteraction;
            localInteractionCoeffs
            {
                patches
                (
                    cWall
                    {
                        type rebound;
                    }
                    pipetteWall_A
                    {
                        type rebound;
                    }
                    pipetteWall_B
                    {
                        type rebound;
                    }
                );
            }
        }



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/NoInteraction

    Dummy class for 'none' option - will raise an error if any functions are
    called that require return values.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/PatchInteractionModel

    Templated patch interaction model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/Rebound

    Simple rebound patch interaction model


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/PatchInteractionModel/StandardWallInteraction

    Wall interaction model.

    Three choices:
      - rebound - optionally specify elasticity and restitution coefficients
      - stick   - particles assigned zero velocity
      - escape  - remove particle from the domain

    Example usage:
    \verbatim
    StandardWallInteractionCoeffs
    {
        type        rebound; // stick, escape
        e           1;       // optional - elasticity coeff
        mu          0;       // optional - restitution coeff
    }
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/StochasticCollision/StochasticCollisionModel

    Templated stochastic collision model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/SurfaceFilmModel/NoSurfaceFilm

    Place holder for 'none' option


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Kinematic/SurfaceFilmModel/SurfaceFilmModel

    Templated wall surface film model class.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/DampingModels/DampingModel

    Base class for collisional damping models.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/DampingModels/NoDamping



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/DampingModels/Relaxation

    Relaxation collisional damping model.

    Particle velocities are relaxed towards the local mean over a time-scale.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "An improved collision damping time for MP-PIC calculations of dense
        particle flows with applications to polydisperse sedimenting beds and
        colliding particle jets"
        P O'Rourke and D Snider
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 65, Issue 22, Pages 6014-6028, November 2010
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/IsotropyModels/IsotropyModel

    Base class for collisional return-to-isotropy models.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/IsotropyModels/NoIsotropy



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/IsotropyModels/Stochastic

    Stochastic return-to-isotropy model.

    Particle velocities are modified by sampling a gaussian-plus-delta
    distribution, which depends on a time-scale. This randomises some particle
    velocities whilst leaving others unchanged. The lower the value of the
    time-scale, the greater the proportion of particle velocities affected.

    A correction step is performed at the end to ensure that the model
    conserves both momentum and granular temperature.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Inclusion of collisional return-to-isotropy in the MP-PIC method"
        P O'Rourke and D Snider
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 80, Issue 0, Pages 39-54, December 2012
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/PackingModels/Explicit

    Explicit model for applying an inter-particle stress to the particles.

    The inter-particle stress is calculated using current particle locations.
    This force is then applied only to the particles that are moving towards
    regions of close pack. The resulting velocity change is limited using an
    abtracted correction velocity limiter.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "An Incompressible Three-Dimensional Multiphase Particle-in-Cell Model
        for Dense Particle Flows"
        D Snider
        Journal of Computational Physics
        Volume 170, Issue 2, Pages 523-549, July 2001
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/PackingModels/Implicit

    Implicit model for applying an inter-particle stress to the particles.

    The time evolution of particulate volume fraction is solved for implicitly
    on the eulerian mesh. The computed flux is then applied to the lagrangian
    field. The gravity force can optionally be applied to the particles as part
    of this model, using the keyword "applyGravity".


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/PackingModels/NoPacking



lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/PackingModels/PackingModel

    Base class for packing models.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/ParticleStressModels/exponential

    Exponential inter-particle stress model of the same form as used in
    twoPhaseEulerFoam


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/ParticleStressModels/HarrisCrighton

    Inter-particle stress model of Harris and Crighton

    The stress value takes the following form:
    \f[
        \frac{P_s \alpha^\beta}{ \mathrm{max} \left( \alpha_{pack} - \alpha ,
        \epsilon ( 1 - \alpha ) \right) }
    \f]
    Here, \f$\alpha\f$ is the volume fraction of the dispersed phase, and the
    other values are modelling constants. A small value \f$\epsilon\f$ is used
    to limit the denominator to ensure numerical stability.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Solitons, solitary waves, and voidage disturbances in gas-fluidized
        beds"
        S Harris and D Crighton,
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics
        Volume 266, Pages 243-276, 1994
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/ParticleStressModels/Lun

    Inter-particle stress model of Lun et al

    The stress value takes the following form:
    \f[
        \left( \alpha \rho + \alpha^2 \rho (1 + e) \frac{3}{5}
        \left( 1 - \left( \frac{\alpha}{\alpha_{pack}} \right)^\frac{1}{3}
        \right) \right) \frac{1}{3} \sigma^2
    \f]
    Here, \f$\alpha\f$ is the volume fraction of the dispersed phase,
    \f$\rho\f$ is the density of the dispersed phase, \f$e\f$ is a coefficient
    of restitution, and \f$\sigma\f$ is the RMS velocity fluctuation.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Kinetic theories for granular flow: inelastic particles in Couette
        flow and slightly inelastic particles in a general flowfield"
        C Lun, S Savage, G Jeffrey, N Chepurniy
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics
        Volume 140, Pages 223-256, 1984
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/ParticleStressModels/ParticleStressModel

    Base class for inter-particle stress models.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/TimeScaleModels/equilibrium

    Equlibrium model for the time scale over which properties of a dispersed
    phase tend towards the mean value.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "A model for collisional exchange in gas/liquid/solid fluidized beds"
        P O'Rourke, P Zhao and D Snider
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 64, Issue 8, Pages 1784-1797, April 2009
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/TimeScaleModels/isotropic

    Model for the time scale over which the velocity field of a dispersed phase
    tends towards an isotropic distribution.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Inclusion of collisional return-to-isotropy in the MP-PIC method"
        P O'Rourke and D Snider
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 80, Issue 0, Pages 39-54, December 2012
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/TimeScaleModels/nonEquilibrium

    Non-Equlibrium model for the time scale over which properties of a
    dispersed phase tend towards the mean value.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "An improved collision damping time for MP-PIC calculations of dense
        particle flows with applications to polydisperse sedimenting beds and
        colliding particle jets"
        P O'Rourke and D Snider
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 65, Issue 22, Pages 6014-6028, November 2010
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/MPPIC/TimeScaleModels/TimeScaleModel

    Base class for time scale models.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/CompositionModel/CompositionModel

    Templated reacting parcel composition model class
    Consists of carrier species (via thermo package), and additional liquids
    and solids


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/CompositionModel/NoComposition

    Dummy class for 'none' option - will raise an error if any functions are
    called that require return values.


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/CompositionModel/SingleMixtureFraction

    Templated parcel multi-phase, multi-component class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/CompositionModel/SinglePhaseMixture

    Templated parcel single phase, multi-component class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/InjectionModel/ReactingLookupTableInjection

    Particle injection sources read from look-up table. Each row corresponds to
    an injection site.

    (
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..YN)  // injector 1
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..YN)  // injector 2
        ...
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..YN)  // injector N
    );

    where:
        x, y, z = global cartesian co-ordinates [m]
        u, v, w = global cartesian velocity components [m/s]
        d       = diameter [m]
        rho     = density [kg/m3]
        mDot    = mass flow rate [kg/m3]
        T       = temperature [K]
        cp      = specific heat capacity [J/kg/K]
        Y       = list of mass fractions


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/PhaseChangeModel/LiquidEvaporation

    Liquid evaporation model
    - uses ideal gas assumption


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/PhaseChangeModel/LiquidEvaporationBoil

    Liquid evaporation model
    - uses ideal gas assumption
    - includes boiling model based on:

    \verbatim
        "Studies of Superheated Fuel Spray Structures and Vaporization in
        GDI Engines"

        Zuo, B., Gomes, A. M. and Rutland C. J.

        International Journal of Engine Research, 2000, Vol. 1(4), pp. 321-336
    \endverbatim


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/PhaseChangeModel/NoPhaseChange

    Dummy phase change model for 'none'


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Reacting/PhaseChangeModel/PhaseChangeModel

    Templated phase change model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/DevolatilisationModel/ConstantRateDevolatilisation

    Constant rate devolatisation model
    - need to set vapourisation temperature to 600 K


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/DevolatilisationModel/DevolatilisationModel

    Templated devolatilisation model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/DevolatilisationModel/NoDevolatilisation

    Dummy devolatilisation model for 'none'


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/DevolatilisationModel/SingleKineticRateDevolatilisation

    Single kinetic rate devolatisation model.
    - acts on a per-specie basis
    - Rate given by Arrhenius eqn

        kappa = A1.exp(- E/R.T)

    Where:
        kappa = rate constant
        A1    = activation energy (user input)
        E     = pre-exponential factor (user input)
        R     = universal gas constant
        T     = temperature

    Usage:

        SingleKineticRateDevolatilisationCoeffs
        {
            volatileData
            (
                (CH4     12     0.5)   // (name A1 E)
                (CO2     12     0.5)   // (name A1 E)
            );

            volatileResidualCoeff 1e-6;
        }


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/InjectionModel/ReactingMultiphaseLookupTableInjection

    Particle injection sources read from look-up table. Each row corresponds to
    an injection site.

    (
       (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..Y2) (Yg0..YgN) (Yl0..YlN) (Ys0..YsN)
       (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..Y2) (Yg0..YgN) (Yl0..YlN) (Ys0..YsN)
       ...
       (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp (Y0..Y2) (Yg0..YgN) (Yl0..YlN) (Ys0..YsN)
    );

    where:
        x, y, z  = global cartesian co-ordinates [m]
        u, v, w  = global cartesian velocity components [m/s]
        d        = diameter [m]
        rho      = density [kg/m3]
        mDot     = mass flow rate [kg/m3]
        T        = temperature [K]
        cp       = specific heat capacity [J/kg/K]
        Y(3)     = total mass fraction of gas (Y0), liquid (Y1), solid (Y3)
        Yg(Ngas) = mass fractions of gaseous components
        Yl(Nliq) = mass fractions of liquid components
        Ys(Nsld) = mass fractions of solid components


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/SurfaceReactionModel/NoSurfaceReaction

    Dummy surface reaction model for 'none'


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/ReactingMultiphase/SurfaceReactionModel/SurfaceReactionModel

    Templated surface reaction model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Thermodynamic/HeatTransferModel/HeatTransferModel

    Templated heat transfer model class


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Thermodynamic/HeatTransferModel/NoHeatTransfer

    Dummy heat transfer model for 'none'


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Thermodynamic/HeatTransferModel/RanzMarshall

    The Ranz-Marshall correlation for heat transfer


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Thermodynamic/InjectionModel/ThermoLookupTableInjection

    Particle injection sources read from look-up table. Each row corresponds to
    an injection site.

    (
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp  // injector 1
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp  // injector 2
        ...
        (x y z) (u v w) d rho mDot T cp  // injector N
    );

    where:
        x, y, z = global cartesian co-ordinates [m]
        u, v, w = global cartesian velocity components [m/s]
        d       = diameter [m]
        rho     = density [kg/m3]
        mDot    = mass flow rate [kg/m3]
        T       = temperature [K]
        cp      = specific heat capacity [J/kg/K]


lagrangian/intermediate/submodels/Thermodynamic/SurfaceFilmModel/ThermoSurfaceFilm

    Thermo parcel surface film model.

    Responsible for:
    - injecting parcelss from the film model into the cloud, e.g. for dripping
    - parcel interaction with the film, e.g absorb, bounce, splash

    Splash model references:

        Bai and Gosman, `Mathematical modelling of wall films formed by
        impinging sprays', SAE 960626, 1996

        Bai et al, `Modelling off gasoline spray impingement', Atom. Sprays,
        vol 12, pp 1-27, 2002



lagrangian/spray/submodels/AtomizationModel/AtomizationModel

    Templated atomization model class


lagrangian/spray/submodels/AtomizationModel/BlobsSheetAtomization

    Primary Breakup Model for pressure swirl atomizers.

    Accurate description in
    @verbatim
    Z. Han, S. Parrish, P.V. Farrell, R.D. Reitz
    "Modeling Atomization Processes Of Pressure Swirl Hollow-Cone Fuel Sprays"
    Atomization and Sprays, vol. 7, pp. 663-684, 1997

    and

    L. Allocca, G. Bella, A. De Vita, L. Di Angelo
    "Experimental Validation of a GDI Spray Model"
    SAE Technical Paper Series, 2002-01-1137
    @endverbatim



lagrangian/spray/submodels/AtomizationModel/LISAAtomization

    Primary Breakup Model for pressure swirl atomizers.

    Accurate description in
    @verbatim
    P.K. Senecal, D.P. Schmidt, I. Nouar, C.J. Rutland, R.D. Reitz, M. Corradini
    "Modeling high-speed viscous liquid sheet atomization"
    International Journal of Multiphase Flow 25 (1999) pags. 1073-1097
    @endverbatim

    and

    @verbatim
    D.P. Schmidt, I. Nouar, P.K. Senecal, C.J. Rutland, J.K. Martin, R.D. Reitz
    "Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field"
    SAE Techical Paper Series 1999-01-0496
    @endverbatim


lagrangian/spray/submodels/AtomizationModel/NoAtomization

    Dummy phase change model for 'none'


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/BreakupModel

    Templated break-up model class


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/ETAB

    The Enhanced TAB model.

    Described in the papers below.
    @verbatim
    F.X. Tanner
        "Liquid Jet Atomization and Droplet Breakup Modeling of
        Non-Evaporating Diesel Fuel Sprays"
        SAE 970050,
        SAE Transactions: Journal of Engines, Vol 106, Sec 3 pp 127-140

    F.X. Tanner and G. Weisser
        "Simulation of Liquid Jet Atomization for
        Fuel Sprays by Means of Cascade Drop Breakup Model"
        SAE 980808
        SAE Technical Paper Series
    @endverbatim

See also
    The TAB model


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/NoBreakup

    Dummy breakup model for 'none'


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/PilchErdman

    Particle secondary breakup model, based on the reference:

    @verbatim
    Pilch, M. and Erdman, C.A.
    "Use of breakup time data and velocity history data
     to predict the maximum size of stable fragments for acceleration
     induced breakup of a liquid drop."
    Int. J. Multiphase Flows 13 (1987), 741-757
    @endverbatim

    The droplet fragment velocity is described by the equation:

    \f[
        V_d = V sqrt(epsilon)(B1 T + B2 T^2)
    \f]

    Where:
        V_d     : fragment velocity
        V       : magnitude of the relative velocity
        epsilon : density ratio (rho_carrier/rho_droplet)
        T       : characteristic break-up time
        B1, B2  : model input coefficients

    The authors suggest that:
        compressible flow   : B1 = 0.75*1.0; B2 = 3*0.116
        incompressible flow : B1 = 0.75*0.5; B2 = 3*0.0758



lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/ReitzDiwakar

    secondary breakup model

    @verbatim
    Reitz, R.D.
    "Modelling atomization processes in highpressure vaporizing sprays"
    Atomization and Spray Technology 3 (1987), 309-337
    @endverbatim

    @verbatim
    Reitz, R.D. and Diwakar, R.
    "Effect of drop breakup on fuel sprays"
    SAE Tech. paper series, 860469 (1986)
    @endverbatim

    @verbatim
    Reitz, R.D. and Diwakar, R.
    "Structure of high-pressure fuel sprays"
    SAE Tech. paper series, 870598 (1987)
    @endverbatim


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/ReitzKHRT

   secondary breakup model which uses the Kelvin-Helmholtz
    instability theory to predict the 'stripped' droplets... and
    the Raleigh-Taylor instability as well.


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/SHF

    Secondary Breakup Model to take account of the different breakup regimes,
    bag, molutimode, shear....

    Accurate description in
    @verbatim
    R. Schmehl, G. Maier, S. Witting
    "CFD Analysis of Fuel Atomization, Secondary Droplet Breakup and Spray
    Dispersion in the Premix Duct of a LPP Combustor".
    Eight International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, 2000
    @endverbatim


lagrangian/spray/submodels/BreakupModel/TAB

    The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup.

    @verbatim
        O'Rourke, P.J. and Amsden, A.A.,
        "The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,"
        1987 SAE International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition,
        Toronto, Ontario, November 2-5, 1987,
        Los Alamos National Laboratory document LA-UR-87-2105;
        SAE Technical Paper Series, Paper 872089.
    @endverbatim

    This implementation follows the kiva version.

See also
    The Enhanced %TAB model - ETAB


lagrangian/turbulence/submodels/Kinematic/DispersionModel/DispersionRASModel

    Base class for particle dispersion models based on RAS turbulence.


lagrangian/turbulence/submodels/Kinematic/DispersionModel/GradientDispersionRAS

    The velocity is perturbed in the direction of -grad(k), with a
    Gaussian random number distribution with variance sigma.
    where sigma is defined below


lagrangian/turbulence/submodels/Kinematic/DispersionModel/StochasticDispersionRAS

    The velocity is perturbed in random direction, with a
    Gaussian random number distribution with variance sigma.
    where sigma is defined below


mesh/extrudeModel/cyclicSector

    Extrudes a sector.

See also
    Foam::extrudeModels::sector


mesh/extrudeModel/extrudeModel

    Top level extrusion model class


mesh/extrudeModel/linearDirection

    Extrudes by transforming points in a specified direction by a given distance


mesh/extrudeModel/linearNormal

    Extrudes by transforming points normal to the surface by a given distance.


mesh/extrudeModel/linearRadial



mesh/extrudeModel/planeExtrusion

    Extrudes by transforming points normal to the surface by 1 layer over
    a given distance.

See also
    Foam::extrudeModels::linearNormal


mesh/extrudeModel/radial



mesh/extrudeModel/sector

    Extrudes by rotating a surface around an axis
    - extrusion is opposite the surface/patch normal so inwards the source
      mesh
    - axis direction has to be consistent with this.
    - use -mergeFaces option if doing full 360 and want to merge front and back
    - note direction of axis. This should be consistent with rotating against
      the patch normal direction. If you get it wrong you'll see all cells
      with extreme aspect ratio and internal faces wrong way around in
      checkMesh


mesh/extrudeModel/sigmaRadial



mesh/extrudeModel/wedge

    Extrudes by rotating a surface symmetrically around axis by 1 layer.

See also
    Foam::extrudeModels::sector


OpenFOAM/meshes/meshShapes/cellModel

    Maps a geometry to a set of cell primitives, which enables
    geometric cell data to be calculated without access to the primitive
    geometric level.  This means mapping a 3D geometry to a set of
    pyramids which are each described by a cell face and the cell centre
    point.


OpenFOAM/meshes/meshShapes/cellModeller

    A static collection of cell models, and a means of looking them up.


OpenFOAM/primitives/subModelBase

    Base class for generic sub-models requiring to be read from dictionary.
    Provides a mechanism to read and write properties from a dictionary to
    enable clean re-starts.  Used by, e.g. clou dsub-models.


regionModels/pyrolysisModels/noPyrolysis

    Dummy surface pyrolysis model for 'none'


regionModels/pyrolysisModels/pyrolysisModel

    Base class for pyrolysis models


regionModels/pyrolysisModels/reactingOneDim

    Reacting, 1-D pyrolysis model


regionModels/regionModel/regionModel

    Base class for region models


regionModels/regionModel/regionModel1D

    Base class for 1-D region models


regionModels/regionModel/regionModelFunctionObject/regionModelFunctionObject

    Region model function object base class


regionModels/regionModel/regionProperties

    Simple class to hold region information for coupled region simulations.

    Gives per physics ('fluid', 'solid') the names of the regions. There
    is no assumption on this level that one region should only have one
    set of physics.


regionModels/regionModel/singleLayerRegion

    Base class for single layer region models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/kinematicSingleLayer

    Kinematic form of single-cell layer surface film model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/noFilm

    Dummy surface film model for 'none'


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/filmThermoModel/constantFilmThermo

    Constant thermo model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/filmThermoModel/filmThermoModel

    Base class for film thermo models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/filmThermoModel/liquidFilmThermo

    Liquid thermo model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/filmTurbulenceModel/filmTurbulenceModel

    Base class for film turbulence models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/filmTurbulenceModel/laminar

    Film laminar turbulence model.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/force/contactAngleForce

    Film contact angle force

    The effect of the contact angle force can be ignored over a specified
    distance from patches.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/force/force

    Base class for film (stress-based) force models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/force/forceList

    List container for film sources


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/force/thermocapillaryForce

    Thermocapillary force


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/injectionModel/curvatureSeparation

    Curvature film separation model

    Assesses film curvature via the mesh geometry and calculates a force
    balance of the form:

        F_sum = F_inertial + F_body + F_surface

    If F_sum < 0, the film separates. Similarly, if F_sum > 0 the film will
    remain attached.

    Based on description given by
        Owen and D. J. Ryley. The flow of thin liquid films around corners.
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 11(1):51-62, 1985.



regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/injectionModel/drippingInjection

    Film Dripping mass transfer model.

    If the film mass exceeds that needed to generate a valid parcel, the
    equivalent mass is removed from the film.

    New parcel diameters are sampled from a PDF.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/injectionModel/injectionModel

    Base class for film injection models, handling mass transfer from the
    film.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/injectionModel/injectionModelList

    List container for film injection models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/kinematic/injectionModel/patchInjection

    Remove and inject the mass in the film as it passes over the selected
    patches.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmRadiationModel/constantRadiation

    Film constant radiation model.  The constant radiative flux is specified
    by the user, and operated over a time interval defined by a start time and
    duration.  In addition, a mask can be applied to shield the film from the
    radiation.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmRadiationModel/filmRadiationModel

    Base class for film radiation models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmRadiationModel/noRadiation

    Dummy radiation model for 'none' option


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmRadiationModel/primaryRadiation

    Radiation model whereby the radiative heat flux is mapped from the primary
    region


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmRadiationModel/standardRadiation

    Standard radiation model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmViscosityModel/ArrheniusViscosity

    The Arrhenius temperature-dependent viscosity model multiplies the viscosity
    of a base model by an Arrhenius-type temperature function:

        mu = mu0*exp(k1*(1/(T + k2) - 1/(Tref + k2)))

    Where:
        mu0 is the base-model viscosity
        k1 and k2 are Arrhenius coefficients
        T is the local temperature
        Tref is the reference temperature


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmViscosityModel/constantViscosity

    Constant viscosity model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmViscosityModel/filmViscosityModel

    Base class for surface film viscosity models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmViscosityModel/liquidViscosity

    liquidViscosity viscosity model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/filmViscosityModel/thixotropicViscosity

    Thixotropic viscosity model based on the evolution of the structural
    parameter \f$ \lambda \f$:

        \f[
            \lambda = a(1 - \lambda)^b - c \lambda \dot{\gamma}^d
        \f]

    The viscosity is then calculated using the expression

        \f[
            \mu = \frac{\mu_{\infty}}{{1 - K \lambda}^2}
        \f]

    Where the parameter K is given by:

        \f[
            K = 1 - \sqrt{\frac{\mu_{\infty}}{\mu_{0}}}
        \f]

    Here:
    \vartable
        \lambda         | structural parameter
        a               | model coefficient
        b               | model coefficient
        c               | model coefficient
        d               | model coefficient
        \dot{\gamma}    | stress rate [1/s]
        \mu_{0}         | limiting viscosity when \f$ \lambda = 1 \f$
        \mu_{\infty}    | limiting viscosity when \f$ \lambda = 0 \f$
    \endvartable

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Barnes H A, 1997.  Thixotropy - a review.  J. Non-Newtonian Fluid
        Mech 70, pp 1-33
    \endverbatim


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/heatTransferModel/constantHeatTransfer

    Constant heat transfer model


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/heatTransferModel/heatTransferModel

    Base class for film heat transfer models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/heatTransferModel/mappedConvectiveHeatTransfer

    Convective heat transfer model based on a re-working of a Nusselt number
    correlation


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/phaseChangeModel/noPhaseChange

    Dummy phase change model for 'none'


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/phaseChangeModel/phaseChangeModel

    Base class for surface film phase change models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/phaseChangeModel/solidification

    Solidification phase change model where all film mass is converted when the
    local temperature > activation temperature.  The latent heat is
    assumed to be removed by heat-transfer to the wall.


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/submodels/thermo/phaseChangeModel/standardPhaseChange

    Standard phase change model with modification for boiling


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/surfaceFilmModel

    Base class for surface film models


regionModels/surfaceFilmModels/thermoSingleLayer

    Thermodynamic form of single-cell layer surface film model

    Note: defining enthalpy as Cp(T - Tstd) - when using liquids from the
    thermophysical library, their enthalpies are calculated similarly, where
    Tstd = 298.15 K


regionModels/thermalBaffleModels/noThermo

    Dummy surface pyrolysis model for 'none'


regionModels/thermalBaffleModels/thermalBaffle

    2D thermal baffle


regionModels/thermalBaffleModels/thermalBaffleModel



rigidBodyDynamics/rigidBodyModel

    Basic rigid-body model representing a system of rigid-bodies connected by
    1-6 DoF joints.

    This class holds various body and joint state fields needed by the
    kinematics and forward-dynamics algorithms presented in

    reference:
    \verbatim
        Featherstone, R. (2008).
        Rigid body dynamics algorithms.
        Springer.
        Chapter 4.
    \endverbatim


rigidBodyDynamics/rigidBodyModelState

    Holds the motion state of rigid-body model.


thermophysicalModels/barotropicCompressibilityModel/barotropicCompressibilityModel

    Namespace for compressibility models.


Class
    Foam::barotropicCompressibilityModel

Description
    Abstract class for barotropic compressibility models


thermophysicalModels/barotropicCompressibilityModel/Chung

    Chung compressibility model.


thermophysicalModels/barotropicCompressibilityModel/linear

    linear compressibility model.


thermophysicalModels/barotropicCompressibilityModel/Wallis

    Wallis compressibility model.


thermophysicalModels/basic/basicThermo

    Abstract base-class for fluid and solid thermodynamic properties


thermophysicalModels/basic/fluidThermo

    Fundamental fluid thermodynamic properties


thermophysicalModels/basic/heThermo

    Enthalpy/Internal energy for a mixture


thermophysicalModels/basic/mixtures/basicMixture

    Foam::basicMixture


thermophysicalModels/basic/mixtures/pureMixture

    Foam::pureMixture


thermophysicalModels/basic/psiThermo

    Basic thermodynamic properties based on compressibility


thermophysicalModels/basic/rhoThermo

    Basic thermodynamic properties based on density


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistryModel/basicChemistryModel

    Base class for chemistry models


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistryModel/chemistryModel

    Extends base chemistry model by adding a thermo package, and ODE functions.
    Introduces chemistry equation system and evaluation of chemical source
    terms.


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistryModel/psiChemistryModel

    Chemistry model for compressibility-based thermodynamics


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistryModel/rhoChemistryModel

    Chemistry model for density-based thermodynamics


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistrySolver/chemistrySolver

    An abstract base class for solving chemistry


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistrySolver/EulerImplicit

    An Euler implicit solver for chemistry


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistrySolver/noChemistrySolver

    Dummy chemistry solver for 'none' option


thermophysicalModels/chemistryModel/chemistrySolver/ode

    An ODE solver for chemistry


thermophysicalModels/laminarFlameSpeed/constant

    Constant laminar flame speed model.


thermophysicalModels/laminarFlameSpeed/Gulders

    Laminar flame speed obtained from Gulder's correlation.


thermophysicalModels/laminarFlameSpeed/GuldersEGR

    Laminar flame speed obtained from Gulder's correlation with EGR modelling.


thermophysicalModels/laminarFlameSpeed/laminarFlameSpeed

    Namespace for laminar flame speed models


Class
    Foam::laminarFlameSpeed

Description
    Abstract class for laminar flame speed


thermophysicalModels/laminarFlameSpeed/RaviPetersen

    Laminar flame speed obtained from Ravi and Petersen's correlation.

    The correlation for the laminar flame speed \f$Su\f$ is of the following
    form:
    \f[
        Su = \left( \sum \alpha_i \phi^i \right)
        \left( \frac{T}{T_{ref}} \right)^{\left( \sum \beta_j \phi^j \right)}
    \f]

    Where \f$\phi\f$ is the equivalence ratio, and \f$\alpha\f$ and \f$\beta\f$
    are polynomial coefficients given for a number of pressure and equivalence
    ratio points.


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidMixtureProperties/liquidMixtureProperties

    A mixture of liquids

    An example of a two component liquid mixture:
    \verbatim
        
        {
            H2O
            {
                defaultCoeffs   yes;     // employ default coefficients
            }
            C7H16
            {
                defaultCoeffs   no;
                C7H16Coeffs
                {
                    ... user defined properties for C7H16
                }
            }
        }
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/aC10H7CH3

    alphaMethylNaphthalene


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/Ar

    Liquid Ar


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/bC10H7CH3

    betaMethylNaphthalene


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C10H22

    nDecane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C12H26

    nDodecane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C13H28

    nTriDecane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C14H30

    nTetraDecane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C16H34

    nHexaDecane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C2H5OH

    ethanol


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C2H6

    ethane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C2H6O

    diMethylEther


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C3H6O

    acetone


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C3H8

    propane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C4H10O

    diEthylEther


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C6H14

    nHexane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C6H6

    benzene


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C7H16

    nHeptane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C7H8

    toluene


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C8H10

    ethylBenzene


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C8H18

    nOctane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/C9H20

    nNonane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/CH3OH

    methanol


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/CH4N2O

    urea, note that some of the properties are unavailable in the literature
    and have been copied from water.


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/H2O

    water


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/iC3H8O

    iso-propanol


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/IC8H18

    iso-Octane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/IDEA

    The IDEA fuel is constructed by adding 30% alphaMethylNaphthalene
    with 70% n-decane.

    The new properties have been calculated by adding the values in these
    proportions and making a least square fit, using the same NSRDS-eq.
    so that Y = 0.3*Y_naphthalene + 0.7*Y_decane

    The valid Temperature range for n-decane is normally 243.51 - 617.70 K
    and for the naphthalene it is 242.67 - 772.04 K
    The least square fit was done in the interval 244 - 617 K

    The critical temperature was taken to be 618.074 K, since this
    is the 'c'-value in the rho-equation, which corresponds to Tcrit,
    This value was then used in the fit for the NSRDS6-eq, which uses Tcrit.
    (important for the latent heat and surface tension)

    The molecular weights are 142.20 and 142.285 and for the IDEA fuel
    it is thus 142.26 ( approximately 0.3*142.2 + 0.7*142.285 )

    Critical pressure was set to the lowest one (n-Decane)

    Critical volume... also the lowest one (naphthalene) 0.523 m^3/kmol

    Second Virial Coefficient is n-Decane


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/liquidProperties

    The thermophysical properties of a liquidProperties


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/MB

    Liquid nC3H7COOCH3 or (MB) methyl butyrate (used for biodiesel surrogate)


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/N2

    Liquid N2


thermophysicalModels/properties/liquidProperties/nC3H8O

    propanol


thermophysicalModels/properties/solidMixtureProperties/solidMixtureProperties

    A mixture of solids

    An example of a two component solid mixture:
    \verbatim
        
        {
            C
            {
                defaultCoeffs   yes;     // employ default coefficients
            }
            ash
            {
                defaultCoeffs   no;
                ashCoeffs
                {
                    ... user defined properties for ash
                }
            }
        }
    \endverbatim



thermophysicalModels/properties/solidProperties/ash

    Coal ash solid properties


thermophysicalModels/properties/solidProperties/C

    Graphite solid properties


thermophysicalModels/properties/solidProperties/CaCO3

    Calcium carbonate (limestone)


thermophysicalModels/properties/solidProperties/solidProperties

    The thermophysical properties of a solid


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/fvDOM/absorptionCoeffs

    Absorption coefficients class used in greyMeanAbsorptionEmission and
    wideBandAbsorptionEmission


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/fvDOM/blackBodyEmission

    Class black body emission

    Table of black body emissive power taken from:
        Modest, "Radiative Heat Transfer", pp.775-777, 1993


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/fvDOM/fvDOM


    Finite Volume Discrete Ordinates Method. Solves the RTE equation for n
    directions in a participating media, not including scatter.

    Available absorption models:
        constantAbsorptionEmission
        greyMeanAbsoprtionEmission
        wideBandAbsorptionEmission

    i.e. dictionary
    \verbatim
        fvDOMCoeffs
        {
            nPhi        4;          // azimuthal angles in PI/2 on X-Y.
                                    //(from Y to X)
            nTheta      0;          // polar angles in PI (from Z to X-Y plane)
            convergence 1e-3;       // convergence criteria for radiation
                                    //iteration
            maxIter     4;          // maximum number of iterations
            cacheDiv    true;       // cache the div of the RTE equation.
            //NOTE: Caching div is "only" accurate if the upwind scheme is used
            //in div(Ji,Ii_h)
        }

        solverFreq   1; // Number of flow iterations per radiation iteration
    \endverbatim

    The total number of solid angles is  4*nPhi*nTheta.

    In 1D the direction of the rays is X (nPhi and nTheta are ignored)
    In 2D the direction of the rays is on X-Y plane (only nPhi is considered)
    In 3D (nPhi and nTheta are considered)


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/fvDOM/radiativeIntensityRay

    Radiation intensity for a ray in a given direction


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/noRadiation

    No radiation - does nothing to energy equation source terms
    (returns zeros)


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/opaqueSolid

    Radiation for solid opaque solids - does nothing to energy equation source
    terms (returns zeros) but creates absorptionEmissionModel and
    scatterModel.


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/P1

    Works well for combustion applications where optical thickness, tau is
    large, i.e. tau = a*L > 3 (L = distance between objects)

    Assumes
     - all surfaces are diffuse
     - tends to over predict radiative fluxes from sources/sinks
       *** SOURCES NOT CURRENTLY INCLUDED ***


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/radiationModel

    Namespace for radiation modelling

Class
    Foam::radiation::radiationModel

Description
    Top level model for radiation modelling


thermophysicalModels/radiation/radiationModels/viewFactor

    View factor radiation model. The system solved is: C q = b
    where:
            Cij  = deltaij/Ej - (1/Ej - 1)Fij
            q    = heat flux
            b    = A eb - Ho
    and:
            eb   = sigma*T^4
            Ej   = emissivity
            Aij  = deltaij - Fij
            Fij  = view factor matrix



thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/absorptionEmissionModel

    Model to supply absorption and emission coefficients for radiation
    modelling


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/binaryAbsorptionEmission

    Radiation coefficient based on two absorption models


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/constantAbsorptionEmission

    Constant radiation absorption and emission coefficients for continuous
    phase


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/greyMeanAbsorptionEmission

    greyMeanAbsorptionEmission radiation absorption and emission coefficients
    for continuous phase

    The coefficients for the species in the Look up table have to be specified
    for use in moles x P [atm], i.e. (k[i] = species[i]*p*9.869231e-6).

    The coefficients for CO and soot or any other added are multiplied by the
    respective mass fraction being solved

    All the species in the dictionary need either to be in the look-up table or
    being solved. Conversely, all the species solved do not need to be included
    in the calculation of the absorption coefficient

    The names of the species in the absorption dictionary must match exactly the
    name in the look-up table or the name of the field being solved

    The look-up table ("speciesTable") file should be in constant

    i.e. dictionary
    \verbatim
        LookUpTableFileName     "speciesTable";

        EhrrCoeff       0.0;

        CO2
        {
            Tcommon     300.;   // Common Temp
            invTemp     true;   // Is the polynomial using inverse temperature?
            Tlow        300.;   // Low Temp
            Thigh       2500.;  // High Temp

            loTcoeffs           // coeffs for T < Tcommon
            (
                0               //  a0            +
                0               //  a1*T          +
                0               //  a2*T^(+/-)2   +
                0               //  a3*T^(+/-)3   +
                0               //  a4*T^(+/-)4   +
                0               //  a5*T^(+/-)5   +
            );
            hiTcoeffs           // coeffs for T > Tcommon
            (
                18.741
                -121.31e3
                273.5e6
                -194.05e9
                56.31e12
                -5.8169e15
            );
        }
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/greyMeanSolidAbsorptionEmission

    greyMeanSolidAbsorptionEmission radiation absorption and emission
    coefficients for continuous phase

    The coefficients for the species in the Look up table have to be specified
    for use in moles x P [atm], i.e. (k[i] = species[i]*p*9.869231e-6).

    The coefficients for CO and soot or any other added are multiplied by the
    respective mass fraction being solved

    All the species in the dictionary need either to be in the look-up table or
    being solved. Conversely, all the species solved do not need to be included
    in the calculation of the absorption coefficient

    The names of the species in the absorption dictionary must match exactly the
    name in the look-up table or the name of the field being solved


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/noAbsorptionEmission

    Dummy absorption-emission model for 'none'


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/absorptionEmissionModel/wideBandAbsorptionEmission


    wideBandAbsorptionEmission radiation absorption and emission coefficients
    for continuous phase.

    All the bands should have the same number of species and have to be entered
    in the same order.

    There is no check of continuity of the bands. They should not ovelap or
    have gaps.

    The emission constant proportionality is specified per band (EhrrCoeff).

    The coefficients for the species in the lookup table have to be specified
    for use in moles x P [atm].i.e. (k[i] = species[i]*p*9.869231e-6).

    The coefficients for CO and soot or any other added are multiplied by the
    respective mass fraction being solved.

    The look Up table file should be in the constant directory.

    band dictionary:
    \verbatim
        band0
        {
            bandLimits (1.0e-6 2.63e-6);
            EhrrCoeff       0.0;
            species
            {
                CH4
                {
                    Tcommon         300.;
                    Tlow            300.;
                    Thigh           2500.;
                    invTemp         false;
                    loTcoeffs (0 0 0 0 0 0) ;
                    hiTcoeffs (.1 0 0 0 0 0);
                }
                CO2
                {
                    Tcommon         300.;
                    Tlow            300.;
                    Thigh           2500.;
                    invTemp         false;
                    loTcoeffs (0 0 0 0 0 0) ;
                    hiTcoeffs (.1 0 0 0 0 0);
                }
                H2O
                {
                    Tcommon         300.;
                    Tlow            300.;
                    Thigh           2500.;
                    invTemp         false;
                    loTcoeffs (0 0 0 0 0 0) ;
                    hiTcoeffs (.1 0 0 0 0 0);
                }
                Ysoot
                {
                    Tcommon         300.;
                    Tlow            300.;
                    Thigh           2500.;
                    invTemp         false;
                    loTcoeffs (0 0 0 0 0 0) ;
                    hiTcoeffs (.1 0 0 0 0 0);
                }
            }
        }
    \endverbatim



thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/scatterModel/constantScatter

    Constant radiation scatter coefficient


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/scatterModel/noScatter

    Dummy scatter model for 'none'


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/scatterModel/scatterModel

    Base class for radiation scattering


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/sootModel/mixtureFractionSoot

    This soot model is purely an state model. The ammount of soot produced is
    determined by a single step chemistry as :

        nuf Fuel + nuOx Ox = nuP P + nuSoot soot

    nuSoot is prescribed by the user.

    The single step chemistry used is read from the combustion.
    The soot is not considered into the thermodynamics of the system and it
    is not considered as an extra specie in the solver.

    The spacial distribution is given by the normalization of the first product
    on the rhs of the reaction by default or it can be added as input.

    The input dictionary reads like in the radiationProperties dictionary:

    sootModel mixtureFractionSoot;

    mixtureFractionSootCoeffs
    {
        nuSoot              0.015;
        Wsoot               12;
        mappingField        P;
    }


thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/sootModel/noSoot

    noSoot



thermophysicalModels/radiation/submodels/sootModel/sootModel

    Base class for soor models


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/chemistryReaders/chemistryReader

    Abstract class for reading chemistry


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/chemistryReaders/chemkinReader

    Foam::chemkinReader


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/chemistryReaders/foamChemistryReader

    Chemistry reader for OpenFOAM format


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/functionObjects/moleFractions

    This function object calculates mole-fraction fields from the mass-fraction
    fields of the psi/rhoReactionThermo and caches them for output and further
    post-processing.

    The names of the mole-fraction fields are obtained from the corresponding
    mass-fraction fields prepended by "X_"

    Example of function object specification:
    \verbatim
    moleFractions
    {
        type psiReactionThermoMoleFractions;
    }
    \endverbatim
    or
    \verbatim
    moleFractions
    {
        type rhoReactionThermoMoleFractions;
    }
    \endverbatim
    depending on the thermodynamics package used in the solver.

See also
    Foam::functionObjects::fvMeshFunctionObject


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/basicCombustionMixture

    Specialization of the basicSpecieMixture for combustion.


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/basicMultiComponentMixture

    Multi-component mixture.

    Provides a list of mass fraction fields and helper functions to
    query mixture composition.


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/basicSpecieMixture

    Specialization of basicMultiComponentMixture for a mixture consisting
    of a number for molecular species.


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/egrMixture

    Foam::egrMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/homogeneousMixture

    Foam::homogeneousMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/inhomogeneousMixture

    Foam::inhomogeneousMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/multiComponentMixture

    Foam::multiComponentMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/reactingMixture

    Foam::reactingMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/singleStepReactingMixture

    Single step reacting mixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/SpecieMixture

    Foam::SpecieMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/mixtures/veryInhomogeneousMixture

    Foam::veryInhomogeneousMixture


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/psiReactionThermo

    Foam::psiReactionThermo


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/psiuReactionThermo

    Foam::psiuReactionThermo


thermophysicalModels/reactionThermo/rhoReactionThermo

    Foam::rhoReactionThermo


thermophysicalModels/SLGThermo/SLGThermo

    Thermo package for (S)olids (L)iquids and (G)ases
    Takes reference to thermo package, and provides:
    - carrier : components of thermo - access to elemental properties
    - liquids : liquid components - access  to elemental properties
    - solids  : solid components - access  to elemental properties

    If thermo is not a multi-component thermo package, carrier is NULL.
    Similarly, if no liquids or solids are specified, their respective
    pointers will also be NULL.

    Registered to the mesh so that it can be looked-up


thermophysicalModels/solidChemistryModel/basicSolidChemistryModel

    Chemistry model for solid thermodynamics


thermophysicalModels/solidChemistryModel/pyrolysisChemistryModel

    Pyrolysis chemistry model. It includes gas phase in the solid
    reaction.


thermophysicalModels/solidChemistryModel/solidChemistryModel

    Extends base solid chemistry model by adding a thermo package, and ODE
    functions.
    Introduces chemistry equation system and evaluation of chemical source
    terms.


thermophysicalModels/solidSpecie/reaction/reactionRate/solidArrheniusReactionRate

    Arrhenius reaction rate for solids


thermophysicalModels/solidSpecie/reaction/Reactions.T/solidReaction


    Read solid reactions of the type S1 = S2 + G1


thermophysicalModels/solidSpecie/transport/const

    Constant properties Transport package.
    Templated into a given Thermodynamics package (needed for thermal
    conductivity).


thermophysicalModels/solidSpecie/transport/exponential

    Exponential properties for solid heat transport
    Templated into a given thermodynamics package.


thermophysicalModels/solidSpecie/transport/polynomial

    Transport package using polynomial functions for solid kappa


thermophysicalModels/solidThermo/solidReactionThermo

    Foam::solidReactionThermo


thermophysicalModels/solidThermo/solidThermo

    Fundamental solid thermodynamic properties


thermophysicalModels/specie/atomicWeights

    A table of atomic weights for all the elements


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/adiabaticPerfectFluid

    AdiabaticPerfect gas equation of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/Boussinesq

    Incompressible gas equation of state using the Boussinesq approximation for
    the density as a function of temperature only:

    \verbatim
        rho = rho0*(1 - beta*(T - T0))
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/icoPolynomial

    Incompressible, polynomial form of equation of state, using a polynomial
    function for density.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/incompressiblePerfectGas

    Incompressible gas equation of state using a constant reference pressure in
    the perfect gas equation of state rather than the local pressure so that the
    density only varies with temperature and composition.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/linear

    Linear equation of state with constant compressibility

    \verbatim
        rho = rho0 + psi*p
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/PengRobinsonGas

    PengRobinsonGas gas equation of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/perfectFluid

    Perfect gas equation of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/perfectGas

    Perfect gas equation of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/equationOfState/rhoConst

    RhoConst (rho = const) of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/ArrheniusReactionRate

    Arrhenius reaction rate given by:

        k = A * T^beta * exp(-Ta/T)


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/ChemicallyActivatedReactionRate

    General class for handling chemically-activated bimolecular reactions.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/fallOffFunctions/LindemannFallOffFunction

    Lindemann fall-off function


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/fallOffFunctions/SRIFallOffFunction

    The SRI fall-off function


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/fallOffFunctions/TroeFallOffFunction

    The Troe fall-off function


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/FallOffReactionRate

    General class for handling unimolecular/recombination fall-off reactions.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/infiniteReactionRate

    infinite reaction rate.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/JanevReactionRate

    Janev, Langer, Evans and Post reaction rate.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/LandauTellerReactionRate

    Landau-Teller reaction rate.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/LangmuirHinshelwood

    Power series reaction rate.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/powerSeries

    Power series reaction rate.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/thirdBodyArrheniusReactionRate

    Arrhenius reaction rate enhanced by third-body interation.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/reactionRate/thirdBodyEfficiencies

    Third body efficiencies


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/Reactions.T/IrreversibleReaction

    Simple extension of Reaction to handle reversible reactions using
    equilibrium thermodynamics.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/Reactions.T/NonEquilibriumReversibleReaction

    Simple extension of Reaction to handle reversible reactions using
    equilibrium thermodynamics.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/Reactions.T/Reaction

    Simple extension of ReactionThermo to handle reaction kinetics in addition
    to the equilibrium thermodynamics already handled.


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/Reactions.T/ReactionList

    List of templated reactions


thermophysicalModels/specie/reaction/Reactions.T/ReversibleReaction

    Simple extension of Reaction to handle reversible reactions using
    equilibrium thermodynamics.


thermophysicalModels/specie/specie

    Base class of the thermophysical property types.


thermophysicalModels/specie/speciesTable

    A table of species as a hashedWordList


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/absoluteEnthalpy

    Thermodynamics mapping class to expose the absolute enthalpy function
    as the standard enthalpy function h(T).


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/absoluteInternalEnergy

    Thermodynamics mapping class to expose the absolute internal energy function
    as the standard internal energy function e(T).


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/eConst

    Constant properties thermodynamics package templated on an equation of
    state


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/hConst

    Constant properties thermodynamics package
    templated into the EquationOfState.


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/hPolynomial

    Thermodynamics package templated on the equation of state, using polynomial
    functions for cp, h and s

    Polynomials for h and s derived from cp


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/hPower

    Power-function based thermodynamics package templated on EquationOfState.

    In this thermodynamics package the heat capacity is a simple power of
    temperature:

        Cp(T) = c0*(T/Tref)^n0;

    which is particularly suitable for solids.


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/hRefConst

    Constant properties thermodynamics package
    templated into the EquationOfState.


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/janaf

    JANAF tables based thermodynamics package templated
    into the equation of state.


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/sensibleEnthalpy

    Thermodynamics mapping class to expose the sensible enthalpy function
    as the standard enthalpy function h(T).


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/sensibleInternalEnergy

    Thermodynamics mapping class to expose the sensible internal energy function
    as the standard internal energy function e(T).


thermophysicalModels/specie/thermo/thermo

    Basic thermodynamics type based on the use of fitting functions for
    cp, h, s obtained from the template argument type thermo.  All other
    properties are derived from these primitive functions.


thermophysicalModels/specie/transport/const

    Constant properties Transport package.
    Templated into a given thermodynamics package (needed for thermal
    conductivity).


thermophysicalModels/specie/transport/logPolynomial

    Transport package using polynomial functions of ln(T) for mu and kappa:

        ln(mu)    = sum_i=1^N( a[i] * ln(T)^(i-1) )
        ln(kappa) = sum_i=1^N( b[i] * ln(T)^(i-1) )


thermophysicalModels/specie/transport/polynomial

    Transport package using polynomial functions for mu and kappa


thermophysicalModels/specie/transport/sutherland

    Transport package using Sutherland's formula.

    Templated into a given thermodynamics package (needed for thermal
    conductivity).

    Dynamic viscosity [kg/m.s]
    \f[
        \mu = A_s \frac{\sqrt{T}}{1 + T_s / T}
    \f]


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/APIfunctions/APIdiffCoefFunc

    API function for vapour mass diffusivity

    Source:
    \verbatim
            API (American Petroleum Institute)
                    Technical Data Book
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc0

    NSRDS function number 100

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc1

    NSRDS function number 101

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc14

    NSRDS function number 114

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc2

    NSRDS function number 102

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc3

    NSRDS function number 103

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc4

    NSRDS function number 104

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc5

    NSRDS function number 105

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc6

    NSRDS function number 106

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/NSRDSfunctions/NSRDSfunc7

    NSRDS-AICHE function number 107

    Source:
    \verbatim
                      NSRDS - AICHE
                 Data Compilation Tables
                    of Properties of
                     Pure Compounds

        Design Institute for Physical Property Data
          American Institute of Chemical Engineers
                  345 East 47th Street
                New York, New York 10017

         National Standard Reference Data System
         American Institute of Chemical Engineers

          T.E. Daubert       -       R.P. Danner

            Department of Chemical Engineering
            The Pennsylvania State University
                University Park, PA 16802
    \endverbatim


thermophysicalModels/thermophysicalFunctions/thermophysicalFunction

    Abstract base class for thermo-physical functions


transportModels/compressible/compressibleTransportModel

    Base-class for all transport models used by the compressible turbulence
    models.


transportModels/immiscibleIncompressibleTwoPhaseMixture

    An immiscible incompressible two-phase mixture transport model


transportModels/incompressible/incompressibleTwoPhaseMixture

    A two-phase incompressible transportModel


transportModels/incompressible/singlePhaseTransportModel

    A simple single-phase transport model based on viscosityModel.

    Used by the incompressible single-phase solvers like simpleFoam,
    turbFoam etc.


transportModels/incompressible/transportModel

    Base-class for all transport models used by the incompressible turbulence
    models.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/BirdCarreau

    An incompressible Bird-Carreau non-Newtonian viscosity model.

    The Bird-Carreau-Yasuda form is also supported if the optional "a"
    coefficient is specified.  "a" defaults to 2 for the Bird-Carreau model.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/CrossPowerLaw

    An incompressible Cross-Power law non-Newtonian viscosity model.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/HerschelBulkley

     Herschel-Bulkley non-Newtonian viscosity model.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/Newtonian

    An incompressible Newtonian viscosity model.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/powerLaw

     Standard power-law non-Newtonian viscosity model.


transportModels/incompressible/viscosityModels/viscosityModel

    A namespace for various incompressible viscosityModel implementations.

Class
    Foam::viscosityModel

Description
    An abstract base class for incompressible viscosityModels.

    The strain rate is defined by:

        mag(symm(grad(U)))



transportModels/interfaceProperties/interfaceCompression

    Interface compression scheme currently based on the generic limited
    scheme although it does not use the NVD/TVD functions.


transportModels/interfaceProperties

    Contains the interface properties.

    Properties to aid interFoam:
    -# Correct the alpha boundary condition for dynamic contact angle.
    -# Calculate interface curvature.


transportModels/twoPhaseMixture/twoPhaseMixture

    A two-phase mixture model


TurbulenceModels/compressible/CompressibleTurbulenceModel

    Templated abstract base class for single-phase compressible
    turbulence models.


TurbulenceModels/compressible

    Abstract base class for turbulence models (RAS, LES and laminar).


TurbulenceModels/compressible/EddyDiffusivity

    Templated abstract base class for single-phase compressible
    turbulence models.


TurbulenceModels/compressible/RAS/buoyantKEpsilon

    Additional buoyancy generation/dissipation term applied to the
    k and epsilon equations of the standard k-epsilon model.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Henkes, R.A.W.M., Van Der Vlugt, F.F. & Hoogendoorn, C.J. (1991).
        Natural Convection Flow in a Square Cavity Calculated with
        Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Models.
        Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34, 1543-1557.
    \endverbatim

    This implementation is based on the density rather than temperature gradient
    extending the applicability to systems in which the density gradient may be
    generated by variation of composition rather than temperature.  Further, the
    1/Prt coefficient is replaced by Cg to provide more general control of
    model.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        buoyantKEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cg              1.0;
        }
    \endverbatim

See also
    Foam::RASModels::kEpsilon


TurbulenceModels/compressible/ThermalDiffusivity

    Templated wrapper class to provide compressible turbulence models
    thermal diffusivity based thermal transport.


TurbulenceModels/compressible

    Abstract base class for turbulence models (RAS, LES and laminar).


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/IncompressibleTurbulenceModel

    Templated abstract base class for single-phase incompressible
    turbulence models.


TurbulenceModels/incompressible

    Abstract base class for turbulence models (RAS, LES and laminar).


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/kkLOmega

    Low Reynolds-number k-kl-omega turbulence model for
    incompressible flows.

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Walters, D. K., & Cokljat, D. (2008).
        A three-equation eddy-viscosity model for Reynolds-averaged
        Navier?Stokes simulations of transitional flow.
        Journal of Fluids Engineering, 130(12), 121401.
    \endverbatim

    however the paper contains several errors which must be corrected for the
    model to operation correctly as explained in

    \verbatim
        Furst, J. (2013).
        Numerical simulation of transitional flows with laminar kinetic energy.
        Engineering MECHANICS, 20(5), 379-388.
    \endverbatim

    All these corrections and updates are included in this implementation.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kkLOmegaCoeffs
        {
            A0             4.04
            As             2.12
            Av             6.75
            Abp            0.6
            Anat           200
            Ats            200
            CbpCrit        1.2
            Cnc            0.1
            CnatCrit       1250
            Cint           0.75
            CtsCrit        1000
            CrNat          0.02
            C11            3.4e-6
            C12            1.0e-10
            CR             0.12
            CalphaTheta    0.035
            Css            1.5
            CtauL          4360
            Cw1            0.44
            Cw2            0.92
            Cw3            0.3
            CwR            1.5
            Clambda        2.495
            CmuStd         0.09
            Prtheta        0.85
            Sigmak         1
            Sigmaw         1.17
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/LamBremhorstKE

    Lam and Bremhorst low-Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model
    for incompressible flows

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Lam, C. K. G., & Bremhorst, K. (1981).
        A modified form of the k-ε model for predicting wall turbulence.
        Journal of Fluids Engineering, 103(3), 456-460.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/LienCubicKE

    Lien cubic non-linear low-Reynolds k-epsilon turbulence models for
    incompressible flows.

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Lien, F.S., Chen, W.L. & Leschziner, M.A. (1996).
        Low-Reynolds-number eddy-viscosity modeling based on non-linear
        stress-strain/vorticity relations.
        Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Experiments 3, 91-100.
    \endverbatim

    Implemented according to the specification in:
    Apsley: Turbulence Models 2002

    In addition to the low-Reynolds number damping functions support for
    wall-functions is also included to allow for low- and high-Reynolds number
    operation.

See also
    Foam::incompressible::RASModels::ShihQuadraticKE


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/LienLeschziner

    Lien and Leschziner low-Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model for
    incompressible flows.

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Lien, F. S., & Leschziner, M. A. (1993).
        A pressure-velocity solution strategy for compressible flow
        and its application to shock/boundary-layer interaction
        using second-moment turbulence closure.
        Journal of fluids engineering, 115(4), 717-725.
    \endverbatim

    Implemented according to the specification in:
    Apsley: Turbulence Models 2002

    In addition to the low-Reynolds number damping functions support for
    wall-functions is also included to allow for low- and high-Reynolds number
    operation.


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/qZeta

    Gibson and Dafa'Alla's q-zeta two-equation low-Re turbulence model
    for incompressible flows

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Dafa'Alla, A.A., Juntasaro, E. & Gibson, M.M. (1996).
        Calculation of oscillating boundary layers with the
        q-zeta turbulence model.
        Engineering Turbulence Modelling and Experiments 3:
        Proceedings of the Third International Symposium,
        Crete, Greece, May 27-29, 141.
    \endverbatim
    which is a development of the original q-zeta model described in:
    \verbatim
        Gibson, M. M., & Dafa'Alla, A. A. (1995).
        Two-equation model for turbulent wall flow.
        AIAA journal, 33(8), 1514-1518.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/incompressible/turbulentTransportModels/RAS/ShihQuadraticKE

    Shih's quadratic algebraic Reynolds stress k-epsilon turbulence model for
    incompressible flows

    This turbulence model is described in:
    \verbatim
        Shih, T. H., Zhu, J., & Lumley, J. L. (1993).
        A realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model.
        NASA technical memorandum 105993.
    \endverbatim

    Implemented according to the specification in:
    Apsley: Turbulence Models 2002


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/LES/continuousGasKEqn

    One-equation SGS model for the gas-phase in a two-phase system
    supporting phase-inversion.

    In the limit that the gas-phase fraction approaches zero a contribution from
    the other phase is blended into the k-equation up to the phase-fraction of
    alphaInversion at which point phase-inversion is considered to have occurred
    and the model reverts to the pure single-phase form.

    This model is unpublished and is provided as a stable numerical framework
    on which a more physical model may be built.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        continuousKEqnCoeffs
        {
            Ck              0.094;
            Ce              1.048;
            alphaInversion  0.7;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/LES/Niceno

    One-equation SGS model for the continuous phase in a two-phase system
    including bubble-generated turbulence.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Niceno, B., Dhotre, M. T., & Deen, N. G. (2008).
        One-equation sub-grid scale (SGS) modelling for
        Euler?Euler large eddy simulation (EELES) of dispersed bubbly flow.
        Chemical Engineering Science, 63(15), 3923-3931.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are:
    \verbatim
        NicenoKEqnCoeffs
        {
            Ck              0.094;
            Ce              1.048;
            alphaInversion  0.3;
            Cp              Ck;
            Cmub            0.6;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/LES/SmagorinskyZhang

    The Smagorinsky SGS model including bubble-generated turbulence

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Zhang, D., Deen, N. G., & Kuipers, J. A. M. (2006).
        Numerical simulation of the dynamic flow behavior in a bubble column:
        a study of closures for turbulence and interface forces.
        Chemical Engineering Science, 61(23), 7593-7608.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        SmagorinskyZhangCoeffs
        {
            Ck              0.094;
            Ce              1.048;
            Cmub            0.6;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/PhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModel

    Templated abstract base class for multiphase compressible
    turbulence models.


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/RAS/continuousGasKEpsilon

    k-epsilon model for the gas-phase in a two-phase system
    supporting phase-inversion.

    In the limit that the gas-phase fraction approaches zero a contribution from
    the other phase is blended into the k and epsilon equations up to the
    phase-fraction of alphaInversion at which point phase-inversion is
    considered to have occurred and the model reverts to the pure single-phase
    form.

    This model is unpublished and is provided as a stable numerical framework
    on which a more physical model may be built.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        continuousGasKEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu             0.09;
            C1              1.44;
            C2              1.92;
            C3              -0.33;
            sigmak          1.0;
            sigmaEps        1.3;
            alphaInversion  0.7;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/RAS/kOmegaSSTSato

    Implementation of the k-omega-SST turbulence model for dispersed bubbly
    flows with Sato (1981) bubble induced turbulent viscosity model.

    Bubble induced turbulent viscosity model described in:
    \verbatim
        Sato, Y., Sadatomi, M.
        "Momentum and heat transfer in two-phase bubble flow - I, Theory"
        International Journal of Multiphase FLow 7, pp. 167-177, 1981.
    \endverbatim

    Turbulence model described in:
    \verbatim
        Menter, F., Esch, T.
        "Elements of Industrial Heat Transfer Prediction"
        16th Brazilian Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM),
        Nov. 2001
    \endverbatim

    with the addition of the optional F3 term for rough walls from
    \verbatim
        Hellsten, A.
        "Some Improvements in Menter’s k-omega-SST turbulence model"
        29th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference,
        AIAA-98-2554,
        June 1998.
    \endverbatim

    Note that this implementation is written in terms of alpha diffusion
    coefficients rather than the more traditional sigma (alpha = 1/sigma) so
    that the blending can be applied to all coefficuients in a consistent
    manner.  The paper suggests that sigma is blended but this would not be
    consistent with the blending of the k-epsilon and k-omega models.

    Also note that the error in the last term of equation (2) relating to
    sigma has been corrected.

    Wall-functions are applied in this implementation by using equations (14)
    to specify the near-wall omega as appropriate.

    The blending functions (15) and (16) are not currently used because of the
    uncertainty in their origin, range of applicability and that is y+ becomes
    sufficiently small blending u_tau in this manner clearly becomes nonsense.

    The default model coefficients correspond to the following:
    \verbatim
        kOmegaSSTCoeffs
        {
            alphaK1     0.85034;
            alphaK2     1.0;
            alphaOmega1 0.5;
            alphaOmega2 0.85616;
            Prt         1.0;    // only for compressible
            beta1       0.075;
            beta2       0.0828;
            betaStar    0.09;
            gamma1      0.5532;
            gamma2      0.4403;
            a1          0.31;
            b1          1.0;
            c1          10.0;
            F3          no;
            Cmub        0.6;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/RAS/LaheyKEpsilon

    Continuous-phase k-epsilon model including bubble-generated turbulence.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Lahey Jr, R. T. (2005).
        The simulation of multidimensional multiphase flows.
        Nuclear Engineering and Design, 235(10), 1043-1060.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        LaheyKEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu             0.09;
            C1              1.44;
            C2              1.92;
            C3              -0.33;
            sigmak          1.0;
            sigmaEps        1.3;
            Cp              0.25;
            Cmub            0.6;
            alphaInversion  0.3;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseCompressible/RAS/mixtureKEpsilon

    Mixture k-epsilon turbulence model for two-phase gas-liquid systems

    The basic structure of the model is based on:
    \verbatim
        Behzadi, A., Issa, R. I., & Rusche, H. (2004).
        Modelling of dispersed bubble and droplet flow at high phase fractions.
        Chemical Engineering Science, 59(4), 759-770.
    \endverbatim

    but an effective density for the gas is used in the averaging and an
    alternative model for bubble-generated turbulence from:
    \verbatim
        Lahey Jr, R. T. (2005).
        The simulation of multidimensional multiphase flows.
        Nuclear Engineering and Design, 235(10), 1043-1060.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        mixtureKEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;
            C1          1.44;
            C2          1.92;
            C3          C2;
            sigmak      1.0;
            sigmaEps    1.3;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/phaseIncompressible/PhaseIncompressibleTurbulenceModel

    Templated abstract base class for multiphase incompressible
    turbulence models.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/Base/kOmegaSST

    Implementation of the k-omega-SST turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible flows.

    Turbulence model described in:
    \verbatim
        Menter, F. R. & Esch, T. (2001).
        Elements of Industrial Heat Transfer Prediction.
        16th Brazilian Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM).
    \endverbatim

    with updated coefficients from
    \verbatim
        Menter, F. R., Kuntz, M., and Langtry, R. (2003).
        Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model.
        Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 4, ed: K. Hanjalic, Y. Nagano,
        & M. Tummers, Begell House, Inc., 625 - 632.
    \endverbatim

    but with the consistent production terms from the 2001 paper as form in the
    2003 paper is a typo, see
    \verbatim
        http://turbmodels.larc.nasa.gov/sst.html
    \endverbatim

    and the addition of the optional F3 term for rough walls from
    \verbatim
        Hellsten, A. (1998).
        "Some Improvements in Menter’s k-omega-SST turbulence model"
        29th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA-98-2554.
    \endverbatim

    Note that this implementation is written in terms of alpha diffusion
    coefficients rather than the more traditional sigma (alpha = 1/sigma) so
    that the blending can be applied to all coefficuients in a consistent
    manner.  The paper suggests that sigma is blended but this would not be
    consistent with the blending of the k-epsilon and k-omega models.

    Also note that the error in the last term of equation (2) relating to
    sigma has been corrected.

    Wall-functions are applied in this implementation by using equations (14)
    to specify the near-wall omega as appropriate.

    The blending functions (15) and (16) are not currently used because of the
    uncertainty in their origin, range of applicability and that if y+ becomes
    sufficiently small blending u_tau in this manner clearly becomes nonsense.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kOmegaSSTCoeffs
        {
            alphaK1     0.85;
            alphaK2     1.0;
            alphaOmega1 0.5;
            alphaOmega2 0.856;
            beta1       0.075;
            beta2       0.0828;
            betaStar    0.09;
            gamma1      5/9;
            gamma2      0.44;
            a1          0.31;
            b1          1.0;
            c1          10.0;
            F3          no;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/eddyViscosity

    Eddy viscosity turbulence model base class


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/laminar

    Turbulence model for laminar flow.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/DeardorffDiffStress

    Differential SGS Stress Equation Model for incompressible and
    compressible flows

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Deardorff, J. W. (1973).
        The use of subgrid transport equations in a three-dimensional model
        of atmospheric turbulence.
        Journal of Fluids Engineering, 95(3), 429-438.
    \endverbatim

    This SGS model uses a full balance equation for the SGS stress tensor to
    simulate the behaviour of B.

    This implementation is as described in the above paper except that the
    triple correlation model of Donaldson is replaced with the generalized
    gradient diffusion model of Daly and Harlow:
    \verbatim
        Daly, B. J., & Harlow, F. H. (1970).
        Transport equations in turbulence.
        Physics of Fluids (1958-1988), 13(11), 2634-2649.
    \endverbatim
    with the default value for the coefficient Cs of 0.25 from
    \verbatim
        Launder, B. E., Reece, G. J., & Rodi, W. (1975).
        Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure.
        Journal of fluid mechanics, 68(03), 537-566.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/dynamicKEqn

    Dynamic one equation eddy-viscosity model

    Eddy viscosity SGS model using a modeled balance equation to simulate
    the behaviour of k in which a dynamic procedure is applied to evaluate the
    coefficients.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Kim, W and Menon, S. (1995).
        A new dynamic one-equation subgrid-scale model for
        large eddy simulation.
        In 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, NV, 1995.
    \endverbatim

    There are no default model coefficients but the filter used for KK must be
    supplied, e.g.
    \verbatim
        dynamicKEqnCoeffs
        {
            filter simple;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/dynamicLagrangian

    Dynamic SGS model with Lagrangian averaging

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Meneveau, C., Lund, T. S., & Cabot, W. H. (1996).
        A Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model of turbulence.
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 319, 353-385.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/kEqn

    One equation eddy-viscosity model

    Eddy viscosity SGS model using a modeled balance equation to simulate the
    behaviour of k.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Yoshizawa, A. (1986).
        Statistical theory for compressible turbulent shear flows,
        with the application to subgrid modeling.
        Physics of Fluids (1958-1988), 29(7), 2152-2164.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kEqnCoeffs
        {
            Ck                  0.094;
            Ce                  1.048;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/kOmegaSSTDES

    Implementation of the k-omega-SST-DES turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible flows.

    DES model described in:
    \verbatim
        Menter, F. R., Kuntz, M., and Langtry, R. (2003).
        Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model.
        Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 4, ed: K. Hanjalic, Y. Nagano,
        & M. Tummers, Begell House, Inc., 625 - 632.
    \endverbatim

    Optional support for zonal filtering based on F1 or F2 is provided as
    described in the paper.

    For further details of the implementation of the base k-omega-SST model
    see Foam::kOmegaSST.

Group
    grpLESTurbulence

See also
    Foam::kOmegaSST


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/cubeRootVolDelta

    Simple cube-root of cell volume delta used in LES models.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/IDDESDelta

    IDDESDelta used by the IDDES (improved low Re Spalart-Allmaras DES model)
    The min and max delta are calculated using the double distance of the min or
    max from the face centre to the cell centre.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/LESdelta

    Abstract base class for LES deltas


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/maxDeltaxyz

    Delta calculated by taking the maximum distance between the cell centre
    and any face centre.  For a regular hex cell, the computed delta will
    equate to half of the cell width; accordingly, the deltaCoeff model
    coefficient should be set to 2 for this case.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/PrandtlDelta

    Apply Prandtl mixing-length based damping function to the specified
    geometric delta to improve near-wall behavior or LES models.

    \verbatim
        delta = min(geometricDelta, (kappa/Cdelta)*y)
    \endverbatim

    Example specification in the turbulenceProperties dictionary:
    \verbatim
    delta           Prandtl;

    PrandtlCoeffs
    {
        delta   cubeRootVol;

        cubeRootVolCoeffs
        {
            deltaCoeff      1;
        }

        // Default coefficients
        kappa           0.41;
        Cdelta          0.158;
    }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/smoothDelta

    Smoothed delta which takes a given simple geometric delta and applies
    smoothing to it such that the ratio of deltas between two cells is no
    larger than a specified amount, typically 1.15.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESdeltas/vanDriestDelta

    Simple cube-root of cell volume delta used in incompressible LES models.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESeddyViscosity

    Eddy viscosity LES SGS model base class


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESfilters/anisotropicFilter

    anisotropic filter

    \verbatim
    Kernel                 as filter          as Test filter with ratio 2
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Box filter:            g = delta2/24  ->  g = delta2/6
    Spherical box filter:  g = delta2/64  ->  g = delta2/16
    Gaussian filter:       g = delta2/24  ->  g = delta2/6
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESfilters/laplaceFilter

    Laplace filter for LES

    \verbatim
    Kernel                 as filter          as Test filter with ratio 2
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Box filter:            g = delta2/24  ->  g = delta2/6
    Spherical box filter:  g = delta2/64  ->  g = delta2/16
    Gaussian filter:       g = delta2/24  ->  g = delta2/6
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESfilters/LESfilter

    Abstract class for LES filters


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESfilters/simpleFilter

    Simple top-hat filter used in dynamic LES models.

    Implemented as a surface integral of the face interpolate of the field.


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/LESModel

    Namespace for LES SGS models.

Class
    Foam::LESModel

Description
    Templated abstract base class for LES SGS models


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/Smagorinsky

    The Smagorinsky SGS model.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Smagorinsky, J. (1963).
        General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: I.
        The basic experiment*.
        Monthly weather review, 91(3), 99-164.
    \endverbatim

    The form of the Smagorinsky model implemented is obtained from the
    k-equation model assuming local equilibrium which provides estimates of both
    k and epsilon separate from the sub-grid scale viscosity:

    \verbatim
        B = 2/3*k*I - 2*nuSgs*dev(D)

    where

        D = symm(grad(U));
        k from D:B + Ce*k^3/2/delta = 0
        nuSgs = Ck*sqrt(k)*delta
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        SmagorinskyCoeffs
        {
            Ck                  0.094;
            Ce                  1.048;
        }
    \endverbatim

See also
    Foam::LESModels::kEqn


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/SpalartAllmarasDDES

    SpalartAllmaras DDES turbulence model for incompressible and compressible
    flows

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Spalart, P. R., Deck, S., Shur, M. L., Squires, K. D., Strelets, M. K.,
        & Travin, A. (2006).
        A new version of detached-eddy simulation, resistant to ambiguous grid
        densities.
        Theoretical and computational fluid dynamics, 20(3), 181-195.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/SpalartAllmarasDES

    SpalartAllmarasDES DES turbulence model for incompressible and
    compressible flows

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Spalart, P. R., Jou, W. H., Strelets, M., & Allmaras, S. R. (1997).
        Comments on the feasibility of LES for wings, and on a hybrid
        RANS/LES approach.
        Advances in DNS/LES, 1, 4-8.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/SpalartAllmarasIDDES

    SpalartAllmaras IDDES turbulence model for incompressible and compressible
    flows

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Shur, M. L., Spalart, P. R., Strelets, M. K., & Travin, A. K. (2008).
        A hybrid RANS-LES approach with delayed-DES and wall-modelled LES
        capabilities.
        International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 29(6), 1638-1649.
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/LES/WALE

    The Wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) SGS model.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Nicoud, F., & Ducros, F. (1999).
        Subgrid-scale stress modelling based on the square of the velocity
        gradient tensor.
        Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 62(3), 183-200.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        WALECoeffs
        {
            Ck                  0.094;
            Ce                  1.048;e
            Cw                  0.325;
        }
    \endverbatim

See also
    Foam::LESModels::Smagorinsky


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/linearViscousStress

    Linear viscous stress turbulence model base class


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/nonlinearEddyViscosity

    Eddy viscosity turbulence model with non-linear correction base class


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/kEpsilon

    Standard k-epsilon turbulence model for incompressible and compressible
    flows including rapid distortion theory (RDT) based compression term.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Standard model:
            Launder, B. E., & Spalding, D. B. (1972).
            Lectures in mathematical models of turbulence.

            Launder, B. E., & Spalding, D. B. (1974).
            The numerical computation of turbulent flows.
            Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering,
            3(2), 269-289.

        For the RDT-based compression term:
            El Tahry, S. H. (1983).
            k-epsilon equation for compressible reciprocating engine flows.
            Journal of Energy, 7(4), 345-353.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;
            C1          1.44;
            C2          1.92;
            C3          -0.33;
            sigmak      1.0;
            sigmaEps    1.3;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/kOmega

    Standard high Reynolds-number k-omega turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible flows.

    References:
    \verbatim
        Wilcox, D. C. (1998).
        Turbulence modeling for CFD
        (Vol. 2, pp. 103-217). La Canada, CA: DCW industries.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kOmegaCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;  // Equivalent to betaStar
            alpha       0.52;
            beta        0.072;
            alphak      0.5;
            alphaOmega  0.5;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/kOmegaSST


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/kOmegaSSTSAS

    Scale-adaptive URAS model based on the k-omega-SST RAS model.

    References:
    \verbatim
        Egorov, Y., & Menter F.R. (2008).
        Development and Application of SST-SAS Model in the DESIDER Project.
        Advances in Hybrid RANS-LES Modelling,
        Notes on Num. Fluid Mech. And Multidisciplinary Design,
        Volume 97, 261-270.
    \endverbatim

    The model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        kOmegaSSTSASCoeffs
        {
            // Default SST coefficients
            alphaK1     0.85;
            alphaK2     1.0;
            alphaOmega1 0.5;
            alphaOmega2 0.856;
            beta1       0.075;
            beta2       0.0828;
            betaStar    0.09;
            gamma1      5/9;
            gamma2      0.44;
            a1          0.31;
            b1          1.0;
            c1          10.0;
            F3          no;

            // Default SAS coefficients
            Cs          0.11;
            kappa       0.41;
            zeta2       3.51;
            sigmaPhi    2.0/3.0;
            C           2;

            // Delta must be specified for SAS e.g.
            delta cubeRootVol;

            cubeRootVolCoeffs
            {}
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/LaunderSharmaKE

    Launder and Sharma low-Reynolds k-epsilon turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible and combusting flows including
    rapid distortion theory (RDT) based compression term.

    References:
    \verbatim
        Launder, B. E., & Sharma, B. I. (1974).
        Application of the energy-dissipation model of turbulence to the
        calculation of flow near a spinning disc.
        Letters in heat and mass transfer, 1(2), 131-137.

        For the RDT-based compression term:
        El Tahry, S. H. (1983).
        k-epsilon equation for compressible reciprocating engine flows.
        Journal of Energy, 7(4), 345-353.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        LaunderSharmaKECoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;
            C1          1.44;
            C2          1.92;
            C3          -0.33;
            alphah      1.0;    // only for compressible
            alphahk     1.0;    // only for compressible
            alphaEps    0.76923;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/LRR

    Launder, Reece and Rodi Reynolds-stress turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Launder, B. E., Reece, G. J., & Rodi, W. (1975).
        Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure.
        Journal of fluid mechanics, 68(03), 537-566.
    \endverbatim

    Including the recommended generalized gradient diffusion model of
    Daly and Harlow:
    \verbatim
        Daly, B. J., & Harlow, F. H. (1970).
        Transport equations in turbulence.
        Physics of Fluids (1958-1988), 13(11), 2634-2649.
    \endverbatim

    Optional Gibson-Launder wall-reflection is also provided:
    \verbatim
        Gibson, M. M., & Launder, B. E. (1978).
        Ground effects on pressure fluctuations in the
        atmospheric boundary layer.
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 86(03), 491-511.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are:
    \verbatim
        LRRCoeffs
        {
            Cmu             0.09;
            C1              1.8;
            C2              0.6;
            Ceps1           1.44;
            Ceps2           1.92;
            Cs              0.25;
            Ceps            0.15;

            wallReflection  yes;
            kappa           0.41
            Cref1           0.5;
            Cref2           0.3;

            couplingFactor  0.0;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/RASModel

    Templated abstract base class for RAS turbulence models


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/realizableKE

    Realizable k-epsilon turbulence model for incompressible and compressible
    flows.

    References:
    \verbatim
        Shih, T. H., Liou, W. W., Shabbir, A., Yang, Z., & Zhu, J. (1994).
        A new k-epsilon eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number
        turbulent flows: Model development and validation.
        NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N, 95, 11442.

        Shih, T. H., Liou, W. W., Shabbir, A., Yang, Z., & Zhu, J. (1995).
        A New k-epsilon Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number
        Turbulent Flows.
        Computers and Fluids, 24(3), 227-238.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        realizableKECoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;
            A0          4.0;
            C2          1.9;
            sigmak      1.0;
            sigmaEps    1.2;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/RNGkEpsilon

    Renormalization group k-epsilon turbulence model for incompressible and
    compressible flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Yakhot, V., Orszag, S. A., Thangam, S.,
        Gatski, T. B., & Speziale, C. G. (1992).
        Development of turbulence models for shear flows
        by a double expansion technique.
        Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics (1989-1993), 4(7), 1510-1520.

    For the RDT-based compression term:
        El Tahry, S. H. (1983).
        k-epsilon equation for compressible reciprocating engine flows.
        Journal of Energy, 7(4), 345-353.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        RNGkEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.0845;
            C1          1.42;
            C2          1.68;
            C3          -0.33;
            sigmak      0.71942;
            sigmaEps    0.71942;
            eta0        4.38;
            beta        0.012;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/SpalartAllmaras

    Spalart-Allmaras one-eqn mixing-length model for incompressible and
    compressible external flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Spalart, P.R., & Allmaras, S.R. (1994).
        A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows.
        La Recherche Aerospatiale, 1, 5-21.
    \endverbatim

    The model is implemented without the trip-term and hence the ft2 term is
    not needed.

    It is necessary to limit the Stilda generation term as the model generates
    unphysical results if this term becomes negative which occurs for complex
    flow.  Several approaches have been proposed to limit Stilda but it is not
    clear which is the most appropriate.  Here the limiter proposed by Spalart
    is implemented in which Stilda is clipped at Cs*Omega with the default value
    of Cs = 0.3.

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        SpalartAllmarasCoeffs
        {
            Cb1         0.1355;
            Cb2         0.622;
            Cw2         0.3;
            Cw3         2.0;
            Cv1         7.1;
            Cs          0.3;
            sigmaNut    0.66666;
            kappa       0.41;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/SSG

    Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski Reynolds-stress turbulence model for
    incompressible and compressible flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        Speziale, C. G., Sarkar, S., & Gatski, T. B. (1991).
        Modelling the pressure?strain correlation of turbulence:
        an invariant dynamical systems approach.
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 227, 245-272.
    \endverbatim

    Including the generalized gradient diffusion model of
    Daly and Harlow:
    \verbatim
        Daly, B. J., & Harlow, F. H. (1970).
        Transport equations in turbulence.
        Physics of Fluids (1958-1988), 13(11), 2634-2649.
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are:
    \verbatim
        SSGCoeffs
        {
            Cmu             0.09;

            C1              3.4;
            C1s             1.8;
            C2              4.2;
            C3              0.8;
            C3s             1.3;
            C4              1.25;
            C5              0.4;

            Ceps1           1.44;
            Ceps2           1.92;
            Cs              0.25;
            Ceps            0.15;

            couplingFactor  0.0;
        }
    \endverbatim


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/RAS/v2f

    Lien and Kalitzin's v2-f turbulence model for incompressible and
    compressible flows, with a limit imposed on the turbulent viscosity given
    by Davidson et al.

    The model solves for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation
    rate epsilon, with additional equations for the turbulence stress normal to
    streamlines, v2, and elliptic damping function, f.

    The variant implemented employs N=6, such that f=0 on walls.

    Wall boundary conditions are:

        k       = kLowReWallFunction
        epsilon = epsilonLowReWallFunction
        v2      = v2WallFunction
        f       = fWallFunction

    These are applicable to both low- and high-Reynolds number flows.

    Inlet values can be approximated by:

        v2      = 2/3 k
        f       = zero-gradient

    References:
    \verbatim
        Lien, F. S., & Kalitzin, G. (2001).
        Computations of transonic flow with the v2f turbulence model.
        International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 22(1), 53-61.

        Davidson, L., Nielsen, P., & Sveningsson, A. (2003).
        Modifications of the v2-f model for computing the flow in a
        3D wall jet.
        Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, 4, 577-584
    \endverbatim

    The default model coefficients are
    \verbatim
        v2fCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.22;
            CmuKEps     0.09;
            C1          1.4;
            C2          0.3;
            CL          0.23;
            Ceta        70;
            Ceps2       1.9;
            Ceps3       -0.33;
            sigmaEps    1.3;
            sigmaK      1;
        }
    \endverbatim

Note
    If the kLowReWallFunction is employed, a velocity variant of the turbulent
    viscosity wall function should be used, e.g. nutUWallFunction.  Turbulence
    k variants (nutk...) for this case will not behave correctly.

See also
    Foam::RASModels::v2fBase
    Foam::RASModels::kEpsilon
    Foam::kLowReWallFunctionFvPatchScalarField
    Foam::epsilonLowReWallFunctionFvPatchScalarField
    Foam::v2WallFunctionFvPatchScalarField
    Foam::fWallFunctionFvPatchScalarField


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/ReynoldsStress

    Reynolds-stress turbulence model base class


TurbulenceModels/turbulenceModels/TurbulenceModel

    Templated abstract base class for turbulence models


combustion/PDRFoam/PDRModels/dragModels/basic

    Basic sub-grid obstacle drag model.
    Details supplied by J Puttock 2/7/06.

     Sub-grid drag term 

    The resistance term (force per unit of volume) is given by:

    \f[
        R = -\frac{1}{2} \rho \vert \dwea{\vec{U}} \vert \dwea{\vec{U}}.D
    \f]

    where:

        \f$ D \f$ is the tensor field "CR" in \f$ m^{-1} \f$

        This is term is treated implicitly in UEqn.H

     Sub-grid turbulence generation 

    The turbulence source term \f$ G_{R} \f$ occurring in the
    \f$ \kappa-\epsilon \f$ equations for the generation of turbulence due
    to interaction with unresolved obstacles :

    \f$ G_{R} = C_{s}\beta_{\nu}
    \mu_{eff} A_{w}^{2}(\dwea{\vec{U}}-\dwea{\vec{U}_{s}})^2 + \frac{1}{2}
    \rho \vert \dwea{\vec{U}} \vert \dwea{\vec{U}}.T.\dwea{\vec{U}} \f$

    where:

        \f$ C_{s} \f$ = 1

        \f$ \beta_{\nu} \f$ is the volume porosity (file "betav").

        \f$ \mu_{eff} \f$ is the effective viscosity.

        \f$ A_{w}^{2}\f$ is the obstacle surface area per unit of volume
        (file "Aw").

        \f$ \dwea{\vec{U}_{s}} \f$ is the slip velocity and is considered
        \f$ \frac{1}{2}. \dwea{\vec{U}} \f$.

        \f$ T \f$ is a tensor in the file CT.

    The term \f$ G_{R} \f$ is treated explicitly in the \f$ \kappa-\epsilon
    \f$ Eqs in the \link PDRkEpsilon.C \endlink file.



combustion/PDRFoam/PDRModels/dragModels/PDRDragModel

    Base-class for sub-grid obstacle drag models. The available drag model is at
    \link basic.H \endlink.


combustion/PDRFoam/PDRModels/turbulence/PDRkEpsilon

    Standard k-epsilon turbulence model with additional source terms
    corresponding to PDR basic drag model (\link basic.H \endlink)

    The default model coefficients correspond to the following:
    @verbatim
        PDRkEpsilonCoeffs
        {
            Cmu         0.09;
            C1          1.44;
            C2          1.92;
            C3          -0.33;  // only for compressible
            C4          0.1;
            sigmak      1.0;    // only for compressible
            sigmaEps    1.3;
            Prt         1.0;    // only for compressible
        }
    @endverbatim

    The turbulence source term \f$ G_{R} \f$ appears in the
    \f$ \kappa-\epsilon \f$ equation for the generation of turbulence due to
    interaction with unresolved obstacles.

    In the \f$ \epsilon  \f$ equation \f$ C_{1} G_{R} \f$ is added as a source
    term.

    In the \f$ \kappa \f$ equation \f$ G_{R} \f$ is added as a source term.


combustion/PDRFoam/PDRModels/XiEqModels/basicXiSubXiEq

    Basic sub-grid obstacle flame-wrinking enhancement factor model.
    Details supplied by J Puttock 2/7/06.

     Sub-grid flame area generation 

    \f$ n = N - \hat{\dwea{\vec{U}}}.n_{s}.\hat{\dwea{\vec{U}}} \f$
    \f$ n_{r} = \sqrt{n} \f$

    where:

        \f$ \hat{\dwea{\vec{U}}} = \dwea{\vec{U}} / \vert \dwea{\vec{U}}
        \vert \f$

        \f$ b = \hat{\dwea{\vec{U}}}.B.\hat{\dwea{\vec{U}}} / n_{r} \f$

    where:

        \f$ B \f$ is the file "B".

        \f$ N \f$ is the file "N".

        \f$  n_{s} \f$ is the file "ns".

    The flame area enhancement factor \f$ \Xi_{sub} \f$ is expected to
    approach:

    \f[
        \Xi_{{sub}_{eq}} =
            1 + max(2.2 \sqrt{b}, min(0.34 \frac{\vert \dwea{\vec{U}}
            \vert}{{\vec{U}}^{'}}, 1.6)) \times min(\frac{n}{4}, 1)
    \f]



combustion/PDRFoam/PDRModels/XiGModels/basicXiSubG


    Basic sub-grid obstacle flame-wrinking generation rate coefficient model.
    Details supplied by J Puttock 2/7/06.

    \f$ G_{sub} \f$ denotes the generation coefficient and it is given by

    \f[
        G_{sub} = k_{1} /frac{\vert \dwea{\vec{U}} \vert}{L_{obs}}
                 \frac{/Xi_{{sub}_{eq}}-1}{/Xi_{sub}}
    \f]

    and the removal:

    \f[
        - k_{1} /frac{\vert \dwea{\vec{U}} \vert}{L_{sub}}
        \frac{\Xi_{sub}-1}{\Xi_{sub}}
    \f]

    Finally, \f$ G_{sub} \f$ is added to generation rate \f$ G_{in} \f$
    due to the turbulence.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/algebraic

    Simple algebraic model for Xi based on Gulders correlation
    with a linear correction function to give a plausible profile for Xi.
    See report TR/HGW/10 for details on the Weller two equations model.
    See \link XiModel.H \endlink for more details on flame wrinkling modelling.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/fixed

    Fixed value model for Xi. See \link XiModel.H \endlink for more details
    on flame wrinkling modelling.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/transport

    Simple transport model for Xi based on Gulders correlation
    with a linear correction function to give a plausible profile for Xi.
    See report TR/HGW/10 for details on the Weller two equations model.
    See \link XiModel.H \endlink for more details on flame wrinkling modelling.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiEqModels/Gulder

    Simple Gulder model for XiEq based on Gulders correlation
    with a linear correction function to give a plausible profile for XiEq.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiEqModels/instabilityXiEq

    This is the equilibrium level of the flame wrinkling generated by
    instability. It is a constant (default 2.5). It is used in
    @link XiModel.H @endlink.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiEqModels/SCOPEBlendXiEq

    Simple SCOPEBlendXiEq model for XiEq based on SCOPEXiEqs correlation
    with a linear correction function to give a plausible profile for XiEq.
    See @link SCOPELaminarFlameSpeed.H @endlink for details on the SCOPE
    laminar flame speed model.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiEqModels/SCOPEXiEq

    Simple SCOPEXiEq model for XiEq based on SCOPEXiEqs correlation
    with a linear correction function to give a plausible profile for XiEq.
    See \link SCOPELaminarFlameSpeed.H \endlink for details on the SCOPE laminar
    flame speed model.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiEqModels/XiEqModel

    Base-class for all XiEq models used by the b-XiEq combustion model.
    The available models are :
        \link basicXiSubXiEq.H \endlink
        \link Gulder.H \endlink
        \link instabilityXiEq.H \endlink
        \link SCOPEBlendXiEq.H \endlink
        \link SCOPEXiEq.H \endlink


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiGModels/instabilityG

    Flame-surface instabilityG flame-wrinking generation rate coefficient model
    used in \link XiModel.H \endlink.

    See Technical Report SH/RE/01R for details on the PDR modelling.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiGModels/KTS

    Simple Kolmogorov time-scale (KTS) model for the flame-wrinling generation
    rate.


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiGModels/XiGModel

    Base-class for all Xi generation models used by the b-Xi combustion model.
    See Technical Report SH/RE/01R for details on the PDR modelling. For details
    on the use of XiGModel see \link XiModel.H \endlink. The model available is
    \link instabilityG.H \endlink


combustion/PDRFoam/XiModels/XiModel

    Base-class for all Xi models used by the b-Xi combustion model.
    See Technical Report SH/RE/01R for details on the PDR modelling.

    Xi is given through an algebraic expression (\link algebraic.H \endlink),
    by solving a transport equation (\link transport.H \endlink) or a
    fixed value (\link fixed.H \endlink).

    See report TR/HGW/10 for details on the Weller two equations model.

    In the algebraic and transport methods \f$\Xi_{eq}\f$ is calculated in
    similar way. In the algebraic approach, \f$\Xi_{eq}\f$ is the value used in
    the \f$ b \f$ transport equation.

    \f$\Xi_{eq}\f$ is calculated as follows:

    \f$\Xi_{eq} = 1 + (1 + 2\Xi_{coeff}(0.5 - \dwea{b}))(\Xi^* - 1)\f$

    where:

        \f$ \dwea{b} \f$ is the regress variable.

        \f$ \Xi_{coeff} \f$ is a model constant.

        \f$ \Xi^* \f$ is the total equilibrium wrinkling combining the effects
        of the flame inestability and turbulence interaction and is given by

        \f[
            \Xi^* = \frac {R}{R - G_\eta - G_{in}}
        \f]

    where:

        \f$ G_\eta \f$ is the generation rate of wrinkling due to turbulence
        interaction.

        \f$ G_{in} = \kappa \rho_{u}/\rho_{b} \f$ is the generation
         rate due to the flame inestability.

    By adding the removal rates of the two effects:

        \f[
            R = G_\eta \frac{\Xi_{\eta_{eq}}}{\Xi_{\eta_{eq}} - 1}
              + G_{in} \frac{\Xi_{{in}_{eq}}}{\Xi_{{in}_{eq}} - 1}
        \f]

    where:

        \f$ R \f$ is the total removal.

        \f$ G_\eta \f$ is a model constant.

        \f$ \Xi_{\eta_{eq}} \f$ is the flame wrinkling due to turbulence.

        \f$ \Xi_{{in}_{eq}} \f$ is the equilibrium level of the flame wrinkling
        generated by inestability. It is a constant (default 2.5).



multiphase/compressibleMultiphaseInterFoam/multiphaseMixtureThermo/phaseModel

    Single incompressible phase derived from the phase-fraction.
    Used as part of the multiPhaseMixture for interface-capturing multi-phase
    simulations.


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/mixtureViscosityModels/BinghamPlastic

     Viscosity correction model for Bingham plastics.

    The strain-rate used is defined as sqrt(2.0)*mag(symm(grad(U)))


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/mixtureViscosityModels/mixtureViscosityModel

    A namespace for incompressible mixtureViscosityModel implementations.

Class
    Foam::mixtureViscosityModel

Description
    An abstract base class for incompressible mixtureViscosityModels.


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/mixtureViscosityModels/plastic

     Viscosity correction model for a generic power-law plastic.


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/mixtureViscosityModels/slurry

     Thomas' viscosity correction for slurry.

     References:
     \verbatim
         "Transport characteristics of suspension:
          VIII. A note on the viscosity of Newtonian suspensions
          of uniform spherical particles".
          D.G. Thomas,
          J. Colloid Sci. 20 (3), 1965, p267.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/relativeVelocityModels/general

    General relative velocity model


multiphase/driftFluxFoam/relativeVelocityModels/relativeVelocityModel



multiphase/driftFluxFoam/relativeVelocityModels/simple

    Simple relative velocity model


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/blended

    Blends two drag models based on the phase fractions to handle
    phase-inversion.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/dragModel



multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Ergun

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 104, p. 42


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Gibilaro

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 106, p. 43


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowErgunWenYu

    D. Gidaspow, Multiphase flow and fluidization,
        Academic Press, New York, 1994.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowSchillerNaumann

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 86-87, p. 40

    This is identical to the Wen and Yu, Rowe model Table 3.6 p.56  in
    the Ph.D. thesis of Berend van Wachem
    'Derivation, Implementation and Validation
                    of
          Computer Simulation Models
         for Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds'


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/interface

    Drag between phase separated by a VoF resolved interface.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SchillerNaumann



multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SyamlalOBrien

    Syamlal, M., Rogers, W. and O'Brien, T. J. (1993) MFIX documentation,
    Theory Guide. Technical Note DOE/METC-94/1004. Morgantown, West Virginia,
    USA.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/WenYu

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 86-87, p. 40

    This is identical to the Wen and Yu, Rowe model Table 3.6 p.56  in
    the Ph.D. thesis of Berend van Wachem
    'Derivation, Implementation and Validation
                    of
          Computer Simulation Models
         for Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds'

    NB: The difference between the Gidaspow-version is the void-fraction
        in the Re-number


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/heatTransferModel



multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/RanzMarshall



multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/multiphaseSystem/diameterModels/constantDiameter

    Constant dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/multiphaseSystem/diameterModels/diameterModel

    Abstract base-class for dispersed-phase particle diameter models.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/multiphaseSystem/diameterModels/isothermalDiameter

    Isothermal dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/multiphaseEulerFoam/multiphaseSystem/phaseModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/Henry

    Henry's law for gas solubiliy in liquid. The concentration of the dissolved
    species in the liquid is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas.
    The dimensionless constant of proportionality between concentrations on
    each side of the interface is \f$k\f$, and is given for each species.
    Mixing in the gas is assumed to be ideal.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModel

    Generic base class for interface composition models. These models describe
    the composition in phase 1 of the supplied pair at the interface with phase
    2.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/InterfaceCompositionModel.T

    Base class for interface composition models, templated on the two
    thermodynamic models either side of the interface.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/NonRandomTwoLiquid

    Non ideal law for the mixing of two species. A separate composition model
    is given for each species. The composition of a species is equal to the
    value given by the model, scaled by the species fraction in the bulk of the
    other phase, and multiplied by the activity coefficient for that species.
    The gas behaviour is assumed ideal; i.e. the fugacity coefficient is taken
    as equal to 1.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/Raoult

    Raoult's law of ideal mixing. A separate composition model is given for
    each species. The composition of a species is equal to the value given by
    the model scaled by the species fraction in the bulk of the other phase.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/interfaceCompositionModels/Saturated

    Model which uses a saturation pressure model for a single species to
    calculate the interface composition.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/massTransferModels/Frossling

    Frossling correlation for turbulent mass transfer from the surface of a
    sphere to the surrounding fluid.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/massTransferModels/massTransferModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/massTransferModels/sphericalMassTransfer

    Model which applies an analytical solution for mass transfer from the
    surface of a sphere to the fluid within the sphere.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/Antoine

    Antoine equation for the vapour pressure.

    \f[
        \log p = A + \frac{B}{C + T}
    \f]

    Coefficients \f$A\f$, \f$B\f$ and \f$C\f$ are to be supplied and should be
    suitable for natural logarithms and temperatures in Kelvin.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/AntoineExtended

    Extended Antoine equation for the vapour pressure.

    \f[
        \log (p) = A + \frac{B}{C + T} + D \log (T) + E T^F
    \f]

    Coefficients \f$A\f$, \f$B\f$, \f$C\f$, \f$D\f$, \f$E\f$ and \f$F\f$ are
    to be supplied and should be suitable for natural logarithms and
    temperatures in Kelvin.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/ArdenBuck

    ArdenBuck equation for the vapour pressure of moist air.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/constantSaturationConditions

    Constant saturation pressure and temperature.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/polynomial

    Polynomial equation for the saturation vapour temperature in terms of
    the vapour pressure (in Pa).

    \f[
        T_sat = \sum_i C_i p^i
    \f]

    where \f$p\f$ is the pressure in Pa and \f$C\f$ are the coefficients.

    Currently this class only provides \f$T_sat\f$, the inverse function to
    return the vapour pressure for a given temperature are not implemented.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/saturationModels/saturationModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/surfaceTensionModels/constantSurfaceTensionCoefficient

    Constant value surface tension model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialCompositionModels/surfaceTensionModels/surfaceTensionModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/aspectRatioModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/constantAspectRatio

    Constant value aspect ratio model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/TomiyamaAspectRatio

    Aspect ratio model of Tomiyama.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/VakhrushevEfremov

    Aspect ratio model of Vakhrushev and Efremov.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Interpolation formula for computing the velocities of single gas
         bubbles in liquids"
        Vakhrushev, I.A. and Efremov, G.I.,
        Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils
        Volume 6, Issue 5, May 1970, pp. 376-379,
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/Wellek

    Aspect ratio model of Wellek et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Shape of liquid drops moving in liquid media"
        Wellek, R.M., Agrawal, A.K., Skelland, A.H.P.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 12, Issue 5, September 1966, pp. 854-862
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/dragModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Ergun

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 104, p. 42


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Gibilaro

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 106, p. 43


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowErgunWenYu

    Gidaspow, Ergun, Wen and Yu drag model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Multiphase flow and fluidization",
        Gidaspow, D.,
        Academic Press, New York, 1994.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowSchillerNaumann

    Gidaspow, Schiller and Naumann drag model

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization"
        Enwald, H., Peirano, E., Almstedt, A-E.,
        Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, 1996, pp. 21-66
        Eq. 86-87, p. 40

        This is identical to the Wen and Yu, Rowe model Table 3.6 p.56  in
        "Derivation, Implementation and Validation of Computer Simulation Models
         for Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds",
        Berend van Wachem
        Ph.D. thesis.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/IshiiZuber

    Ishii and Zuber (1979) drag model for dense dispersed bubbly flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficient and relative velocity in bubbly, droplet and
         particulate flows",
        Ishii, M., Zuber, N.,
        AIChE Journal 5, Vol. 25, 1979, pp. 843-855.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Lain

    Drag model of Lain et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Modelling hydrodynamics and turbulence in a bubble column using the
         Euler-Lagrange procedure"
        Lain, S., Brodera, D., Sommerfelda, M., Goza, M.F.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 28, Issue 8, August 2002, pp. 1381-1407
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SchillerNaumann

    Schiller and Naumann drag model for dispersed bubbly flows.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/segregated

    Segregated drag model for use in regions with no obvious dispersed phase.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Towards the Numerical Simulation of Multi-scale Two-phase Flows",
        Marschall, H.,
        PhD Thesis, TU Munchen, 2011
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SyamlalOBrien

    Syamlal, M., Rogers, W. and O'Brien, T. J. (1993) MFIX documentation,
    Theory Guide. Technical Note DOE/METC-94/1004. Morgantown, West Virginia,
    USA.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/TomiyamaAnalytic

    Analytical drag model of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficients of Bubbles. 1st Report. Drag Coefficients of a
         Single Bubble in a Stagnant Liquid."
        Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., and Sakaguchi, T.,
        Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu
        Volume 61, Issue 587, 1995, pp. 2357-2364
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/TomiyamaCorrelated

    Correlation of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Terminal velocity of single bubbles in surface tension force dominant
         regime"
        Tomiyama, T., Celata, G.P., Hosokawa, S., Yoshida, S.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 28, Issue 9, September 2002, pp. 1497-1519
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/TomiyamaKataokaZunSakaguchi

    Drag model for gas-liquid system of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag coefficients of single bubbles under normal and microgravity
         conditions"
        Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., Zun, I., Sakaguchi, T.
        JSME International Series B, Fluids and Thermal Engineering,
        Vol. 41, 1998, pp. 472-479
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/WenYu

    Wen and Yu drag model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization"
        Enwald, H., Peirano, E., Almstedt, A-E.,
        Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, 1996, pp. 21-66
        Eq. 86-87, p. 40
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/heatTransferModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/RanzMarshall

    Ranz-Marshall correlation for turbulent heat transfer from the surface of a
    sphere to the surrounding fluid.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/sphericalHeatTransfer

    Model which applies an analytical solution for heat transfer from the
    surface of a sphere to the fluid within the sphere.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/constantLiftCoefficient

    Constant coefficient lift model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/LegendreMagnaudet

    Lift model of Legendre and Magnaudet.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The lift force on a spherical bubble in a viscous linear shear flow"
        Legendre, D., Magnaudet, J.,
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics
        Volume 368, August 1998, pp. 81-126
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/liftModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/Moraga

    Lift model of Moraga et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Lateral forces on spheres in turbulent uniform shear flow"
        Moraga, F.J., Bonetto, F.J., Lahey, R.T.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 25, Issues 6-7, September 1999, pp. 1321-1372
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/noLift



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/TomiyamaLift

    Lift model of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Transverse migration of single bubbles in simple shear flows"
        Tomiyama, A., Tamai, H., Zun, I., Hosokawa, S.,
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 57, Issue 11, June 2002, pp. 1849-1858
    \endverbatim

    The coefficient for pow3(EoH) proposed by Tomiyama (2002) has been modified
    to make the model continuous at EoH = 10.7 while maintaining the
    lift coefficient proposed by Tomiyama (2002) when EoH >= 10.7.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/wallDampedLift



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/noSwarm



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/swarmCorrection



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/TomiyamaSwarm

    Swarm correction of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficients of Bubbles. 2nd Report. Drag Coefficient for a Swarm
         of Bubbles and its Applicability to Transient Flow."
        Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., Fukuda, T., and Sakaguchi, T.,
        Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu
        Volume 61, Issue 588, 1995, pp. 2810-2817
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/Burns

    Turbulent dispersion model of Burns et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The Favre averaged drag model for turbulent dispersion in Eulerian
         multi-phase flows"
        Burns, A.D., Frank, T., Hamill, I., Shi, J.M.,
        5th international conference on multiphase flow
        Volume 4, Paper 392, May 2004
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/constantTurbulentDispersionCoefficient

    Constant coefficient turbulent dispersion model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/Gosman

    Turbulent dispersion model of Gosman et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Multidimensional modeling of turbulent two-phase flows in stirred
         vessels"
        Gosman, A.D., Lekakou, C., Politis, S., Issa, R.I., and Looney, M.K.,
        AIChE Journal
        Volume 38, Issue 12, 1992, pp. 1946-1956
     \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/LopezDeBertodano

    Lopez de Bertodano (1992) turbulent dispersion model.

    \verbatim
        "Turbulent bubbly two-phase flow in a triangular
         duct"
        Lopez de Bertodano, M.
        Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institution, New York, USA, 1992.
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The Favre averaged drag model for turbulent dispersion in Eulerian
         multi-phase flows"
        Burns, A.D., Frank, T., Hamill, I., Shi, J.M.,
        5th international conference on multiphase flow
        Volume 4, Paper 392, May 2004
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/noTurbulentDispersion



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/turbulentDispersionModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/constantVirtualMassCoefficient

    Constant coefficient virtual mass model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/Lamb

    Virtual mass model of Lamb.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Hydrodynamics"
        Lamb, H.,
        Cambridge University Press, 1895
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/noVirtualMass



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/virtualMassModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/cosine



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/interpolated



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/linear



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/noWallDamping



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/sine



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDampingModels/wallDampingModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDependentModel

    A class which provides on-demand creation and caching of wall distance and
    wall normal fields for use by multiple models.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/Antal

    Wall lubrication model of Antal et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Analysis of phase distribution in fully developed laminar bubbly
         two-phase flow"
        Antal, S.P., Lahey Jr, R.T., and Flaherty, J.E.
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 17, Issue 5, September 1991, pp. 635-652
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/Frank

    Wall lubrication model of Frank.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of 3-dimensional Gas-
         Liquid Multiphase Flows"
        Frank, T.
        NAFEMS Seminar: Simulation of Complex Flows (CFD), April 2005, pp. 1-18
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/noWallLubrication



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/TomiyamaWallLubrication

    Wall lubrication model of Tomiyama.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Struggle with Computational Bubble Dynamics"
        Tomiyama, A.,
        Multiphase Science and Technology
        Volume 10, Issue 4, 1998, pp. 369-405
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/wallLubricationModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/BlendedInterfacialModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/blendingMethod



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/hyperbolic



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/linear



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/noBlending



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/diameterModels/constantDiameter

    Constant dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/diameterModels/diameterModel

    A2stract base-class for dispersed-phase particle diameter models.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/diameterModels/isothermalDiameter

    Isothermal dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/AnisothermalPhaseModel

    Class which represents a phase for which the temperature (strictly energy)
    varies. Returns the energy equation and corrects the thermodynamic model.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/InertPhaseModel

    Class which represents an inert phase, with no reactions. Returns zero
    reaction rate and heat.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/IsothermalPhaseModel

    Class which represents a phase for which the temperature (strictly energy)
    remains constant. Returns an empty energy equation and does nothing when
    correctThermo is called.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/MovingPhaseModel

    Class which represents a moving fluid phase. Holds the velocity, fluxes and
    turbulence model. Provides access to the turbulent quantities.

    Possible future extensions include separating the turbulent fuctionality
    into another layer. It should also be possible to replace this layer with a
    stationary phase model, in order to model packed beds or simple porous
    media. This would probably require extra functionality, such as returning
    the inputs into the general pressure equation (A, HbyA, etc ...).

    Note that this class does not return the turbulence model, it just provides
    indirect access to the turbulent data. This is so a layer without
    turbulence modelling (such as a stationary model) could be substituted.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/MultiComponentPhaseModel

    Class which represents a phase with multiple species. Returns the species'
    mass fractions, and their governing equations.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/phaseModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/PurePhaseModel

    Class which represents pure phases, i.e. without any species. Returns an
    empty list of mass fractions.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/ReactingPhaseModel

    Class which represents phases with volumetric reactions. Returns the
    reaction rate and heat.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/phaseSystems/phaseModel/ThermoPhaseModel

    Class which represents a phase with a thermodynamic model. Provides access
    to the thermodynamic variables. Note that the thermo model itself is not
    returned as this class could be substituted in the hierarcy for one which
    mirrors the functionality, but does not include a thermo model; an
    incompressible phase model, for example.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/conductivityModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/Gidaspow



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/HrenyaSinclair



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/Syamlal



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/frictionalStressModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/JohnsonJackson



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/JohnsonJacksonSchaeffer



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/Schaeffer



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/granularPressureModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/Lun



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/SyamlalRogersOBrien



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/kineticTheoryModel

    Kinetic theory particle phase RAS model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Derivation, implementation, and validation of computer simulation
         models for gas-solid fluidized beds",
        van Wachem, B.G.M.,
        Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Amsterdam, 2000.
    \endverbatim

    There are no default model coefficients.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/CarnahanStarling



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/LunSavage



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/radialModel


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/SinclairJackson



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/Gidaspow



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/HrenyaSinclair



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/none



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/Syamlal



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/viscosityModel



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/phasePressureModel

    Particle-particle phase-pressure RAS model

    The derivative of the phase-pressure with respect to the phase-fraction
    is evaluated as

        g0*min(exp(preAlphaExp*(alpha - alphaMax)), expMax)

    The default model coefficients correspond to the following:
    \verbatim
        phasePressureCoeffs
        {
            preAlphaExp     500;
            expMax          1000;
            alphaMax        0.62;
            g0              1000;
        }
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE

    IATE (Interfacial Area Transport Equation) bubble diameter model.

    Solves for the interfacial curvature per unit volume of the phase rather
    than interfacial area per unit volume to avoid stability issues relating to
    the consistency requirements between the phase fraction and interfacial area
    per unit volume.  In every other respect this model is as presented in the
    paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/dummy



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/IATEsource

    IATE (Interfacial Area Transport Equation) bubble diameter model
    run-time selectable sources.


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/randomCoalescence

    Random coalescence IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim



multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/turbulentBreakUp

    Turbulence-induced break-up IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/reactingEulerFoam/reactingTwoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/wakeEntrainmentCoalescence

    Bubble coalescence due to wake entrainment IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/aspectRatioModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/constantAspectRatio

    Constant value aspect ratio model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/TomiyamaAspectRatio

    Aspect ratio model of Tomiyama.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/VakhrushevEfremov

    Aspect ratio model of Vakhrushev and Efremov.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Interpolation formula for computing the velocities of single gas
         bubbles in liquids"
        Vakhrushev, I.A. and Efremov, G.I.,
        Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils
        Volume 6, Issue 5, May 1970, pp. 376-379,
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/aspectRatioModels/Wellek

    Aspect ratio model of Wellek et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Shape of liquid drops moving in liquid media"
        Wellek, R.M., Agrawal, A.K., Skelland, A.H.P.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 12, Issue 5, September 1966, pp. 854-862
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/dragModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Ergun

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 104, p. 42


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Gibilaro

    H, Enwald, E. Peirano, A-E Almstedt
    'Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization'
    Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, pp. 21-66 (1996)
    Eq. 106, p. 43


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowErgunWenYu

    Gidaspow, Ergun, Wen and Yu drag model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Multiphase flow and fluidization",
        Gidaspow, D.,
        Academic Press, New York, 1994.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/GidaspowSchillerNaumann

    Gidaspow, Schiller and Naumann drag model

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization"
        Enwald, H., Peirano, E., Almstedt, A-E.,
        Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, 1996, pp. 21-66
        Eq. 86-87, p. 40

        This is identical to the Wen and Yu, Rowe model Table 3.6 p.56  in
        "Derivation, Implementation and Validation of Computer Simulation Models
         for Gas-Solid Fluidized Beds",
        Berend van Wachem
        Ph.D. thesis.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/IshiiZuber

    Ishii and Zuber (1979) drag model for dense dispersed bubbly flows.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficient and relative velocity in bubbly, droplet and
         particulate flows",
        Ishii, M., Zuber, N.,
        AIChE Journal 5, Vol. 25, 1979, pp. 843-855.
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/Lain

    Drag model of Lain et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Modelling hydrodynamics and turbulence in a bubble column using the
         Euler-Lagrange procedure"
        Lain, S., Brodera, D., Sommerfelda, M., Goza, M.F.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 28, Issue 8, August 2002, pp. 1381-1407
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SchillerNaumann

    Schiller and Naumann drag model for dispersed bubbly flows.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/segregated

    Segregated drag model for use in regions with no obvious dispersed phase.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Towards the Numerical Simulation of Multi-scale Two-phase Flows",
        Marschall, H.,
        PhD Thesis, TU Munchen, 2011
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/SyamlalOBrien

    Syamlal, M., Rogers, W. and O'Brien, T. J. (1993) MFIX documentation,
    Theory Guide. Technical Note DOE/METC-94/1004. Morgantown, West Virginia,
    USA.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/TomiyamaAnalytic

    Analytical drag model of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficients of Bubbles. 1st Report. Drag Coefficients of a
         Single Bubble in a Stagnant Liquid."
        Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., and Sakaguchi, T.,
        Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu
        Volume 61, Issue 587, 1995, pp. 2357-2364
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/TomiyamaCorrelated

    Correlation of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Terminal velocity of single bubbles in surface tension force dominant
         regime"
        Tomiyama, T., Celata, G.P., Hosokawa, S., Yoshida, S.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 28, Issue 9, September 2002, pp. 1497-1519
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/dragModels/WenYu

    Wen and Yu drag model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Eulerian Two-Phase Flow Theory Applied to Fluidization"
        Enwald, H., Peirano, E., Almstedt, A-E.,
        Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 22, Suppl, 1996, pp. 21-66
        Eq. 86-87, p. 40
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/heatTransferModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/RanzMarshall

    Ranz-Marshall correlation for turbulent heat transfer from the surface of a
    sphere to the surrounding fluid.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/heatTransferModels/sphericalHeatTransfer

    Model which applies an analytical solution for heat transfer from the
    surface of a sphere to the fluid within the sphere.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/constantLiftCoefficient

    Constant coefficient lift model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/LegendreMagnaudet

    Lift model of Legendre and Magnaudet.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The lift force on a spherical bubble in a viscous linear shear flow"
        Legendre, D., Magnaudet, J.,
        Journal of Fluid Mechanics
        Volume 368, August 1998, pp. 81-126
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/liftModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/Moraga

    Lift model of Moraga et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Lateral forces on spheres in turbulent uniform shear flow"
        Moraga, F.J., Bonetto, F.J., Lahey, R.T.,
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 25, Issues 6-7, September 1999, pp. 1321-1372
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/noLift



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/liftModels/TomiyamaLift

    Lift model of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Transverse migration of single bubbles in simple shear flows"
        Tomiyama, A., Tamai, H., Zun, I., Hosokawa, S.,
        Chemical Engineering Science
        Volume 57, Issue 11, June 2002, pp. 1849-1858
    \endverbatim

    The coefficient for pow3(EoH) proposed by Tomiyama (2002) has been modified
    to make the model continuous at EoH = 10.7 while maintaining the
    lift coefficient proposed by Tomiyama (2002) when EoH >= 10.7.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/noSwarm



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/swarmCorrection



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/swarmCorrections/TomiyamaSwarm

    Swarm correction of Tomiyama et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Drag Coefficients of Bubbles. 2nd Report. Drag Coefficient for a Swarm
         of Bubbles and its Applicability to Transient Flow."
        Tomiyama, A., Kataoka, I., Fukuda, T., and Sakaguchi, T.,
        Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu
        Volume 61, Issue 588, 1995, pp. 2810-2817
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/Burns

    Turbulent dispersion model of Burns et al.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
        in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.,
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The Favre averaged drag model for turbulent dispersion in Eulerian
         multi-phase flows"
        Burns, A.D., Frank, T., Hamill, I., Shi, J.M.,
        5th international conference on multiphase flow
        Volume 4, Paper 392, May 2004
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/constantTurbulentDispersionCoefficient

    Constant coefficient turbulent dispersion model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/Gosman

    Turbulent dispersion model of Gosman et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Multidimensional modeling of turbulent two-phase flows in stirred
         vessels"
        Gosman, A.D., Lekakou, C., Politis, S., Issa, R.I., and Looney, M.K.,
        AIChE Journal
        Volume 38, Issue 12, 1992, pp. 1946-1956
     \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/LopezDeBertodano

    Lopez de Bertodano (1992) turbulent dispersion model.

    \verbatim
        "Turbulent bubbly two-phase flow in a triangular
         duct"
        Lopez de Bertodano, M.
        Ph.D. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institution, New York, USA, 1992.
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "The Favre averaged drag model for turbulent dispersion in Eulerian
         multi-phase flows"
        Burns, A.D., Frank, T., Hamill, I., Shi, J.M.,
        5th international conference on multiphase flow
        Volume 4, Paper 392, May 2004
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/noTurbulentDispersion



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/turbulentDispersionModels/turbulentDispersionModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/constantVirtualMassCoefficient

    Constant coefficient virtual mass model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/Lamb

    Virtual mass model of Lamb.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Hydrodynamics"
        Lamb, H.,
        Cambridge University Press, 1895
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/noVirtualMass



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/virtualMassModels/virtualMassModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallDependentModel

    A class which provides on-demand creation and caching of wall distance and
    wall normal fields for use by multiple models.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/Antal

    Wall lubrication model of Antal et al.

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Analysis of phase distribution in fully developed laminar bubbly
         two-phase flow"
        Antal, S.P., Lahey Jr, R.T., and Flaherty, J.E.
        International Journal of Multiphase Flow
        Volume 17, Issue 5, September 1991, pp. 635-652
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/Frank

    Wall lubrication model of Frank.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis
        April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of 3-dimensional Gas-
         Liquid Multiphase Flows"
        Frank, T.
        NAFEMS Seminar: Simulation of Complex Flows (CFD), April 2005, pp. 1-18
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/noWallLubrication



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/TomiyamaWallLubrication

    Wall lubrication model of Tomiyama.

    References:
    \verbatim
        "Implementation and Comparison of Correlations for interfacial Forces
         in a Gas-Liquid System within an Euler-Euler Framework"
        Otromke, M.
        PhD Thesis, April 2013
    \endverbatim

    \verbatim
        "Struggle with Computational Bubble Dynamics"
        Tomiyama, A.,
        Multiphase Science and Technology
        Volume 10, Issue 4, 1998, pp. 369-405
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/interfacialModels/wallLubricationModels/wallLubricationModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/conductivityModel


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/Gidaspow



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/HrenyaSinclair



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/conductivityModel/Syamlal



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/frictionalStressModel


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/JohnsonJackson



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/frictionalStressModel/Schaeffer



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/granularPressureModel


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/Lun



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/granularPressureModel/SyamlalRogersOBrien



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/kineticTheoryModel

    Kinetic theory particle phase RAS model

    Reference:
    \verbatim
        "Derivation, implementation, and validation of computer simulation
         models for gas-solid fluidized beds",
        van Wachem, B.G.M.,
        Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Amsterdam, 2000.
    \endverbatim

    There are no default model coefficients.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/CarnahanStarling



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/LunSavage



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/radialModel


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/radialModel/SinclairJackson



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/Gidaspow



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/HrenyaSinclair



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/none



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/Syamlal



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/kineticTheoryModels/viscosityModel/viscosityModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/phaseCompressibleTurbulenceModels/phasePressureModel

    Particle-particle phase-pressure RAS model

    The derivative of the phase-pressure with respect to the phase-fraction
    is evaluated as

        g0*min(exp(preAlphaExp*(alpha - alphaMax)), expMax)

    The default model coefficients correspond to the following:
    \verbatim
        phasePressureCoeffs
        {
            preAlphaExp     500;
            expMax          1000;
            alphaMax        0.62;
            g0              1000;
        }
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/BlendedInterfacialModel



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/blendingMethod



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/hyperbolic



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/linear



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/BlendedInterfacialModel/blendingMethods/noBlending



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/constantDiameter

    Constant dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/diameterModel

    A2stract base-class for dispersed-phase particle diameter models.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE

    IATE (Interfacial Area Transport Equation) bubble diameter model.

    Solves for the interfacial curvature per unit volume of the phase rather
    than interfacial area per unit volume to avoid stability issues relating to
    the consistency requirements between the phase fraction and interfacial area
    per unit volume.  In every other respect this model is as presented in the
    paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/dummy



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/IATEsource

    IATE (Interfacial Area Transport Equation) bubble diameter model
    run-time selectable sources.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/randomCoalescence

    Random coalescence IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim



multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/turbulentBreakUp

    Turbulence-induced break-up IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/IATE/IATEsources/wakeEntrainmentCoalescence

    Bubble coalescence due to wake entrainment IATE source as defined in paper:

    \verbatim
        "Development of Interfacial Area Transport Equation"
        Ishii, M., Kim, S. and Kelly, J.,
        Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Vol.37 No.6 December 2005
    \endverbatim


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/diameterModels/isothermalDiameter

    Isothermal dispersed-phase particle diameter model.


multiphase/twoPhaseEulerFoam/twoPhaseSystem/phaseModel


Total 679