Brief Explanation of Experimental Data Set on Excess Heat and Nuclear Transmutation in Multiplly Nanocoated Ni Wire*

 

Hideo Kozima1) and Francesco Celani2)

1)     Cold Fusion Research Laboratory, 597-16, Yatsu, Aoi, Shizuoka 421-1202, Japan

2)     Istit. Naz. Fis. Nucl., Lab. Naz. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, Italy

 

*This paper is an extended version of the paper to be published in Proc. JCF11 with the same title.

 

Abstract

   Experimental data of excess heat generation and nuclear transmutation obtained in Ni wire multiplly nano-coated with Pd and a compound of B, Sr, Ba and Th at up to 900 degC have been analyzed using the TNCF model.

   The Ni wire is 50 ƒΚm in diameter and 82 cm long. The coating is made of Pd and the compound about 50 times resulting in a surface layer of about oneƒΚm thick. The maximum excess energy Qmax is 1800 W/g of the Ni wire. There have occurred various nuclear transmutations. The most notable results are enumerated as follows: (1) Elements Ti, Cr, Co, As, Ir, and Tl have increased. (2) B, Sr, Pd and Ba have decreased. (3) Fe and Ni have not showed remarkable change. (4) In the case of B, Sr and Ba, the rates of the decrease are larger for lighter isotopes. (5) 105B/115B ratio decreased over 14%. (6) 10546Pd decreased about 5% and 10246Pd increased about 9%.

   These data have been analyzed using the TNCF model successfully applied for explanation of various experimental data sets over the past 15 years. We can estimate the parameter of the model nn using the data for 105B and 10546Pd as follows; nn = 1.3 ~ 109 cm–3 (by the decrease of 105B) and nn = 2.5 ~ 1011 cm–3 (by the decrease of 10546Pd). These values show the situation in the experiment belong to a range of fairly large value of the parameter where we can expect the nuclear reactions by a single neutron and also a n-p cluster.

   The excess heat generation of 1800 W/g at its maximum has been investigated using the value of nn estimated above and a formula for the excess energy is induced. Assuming the surface layer of 1ƒΚm thick is made of Pd only, for illustrative purposes, we have obtained Qav about 1% of the observed maximum one. If the average value of the excess energy is about 10% of the maximum, the discrepancy is about one order of magnitude. If we know the correct composition of the surface layer, the calculated value of Qav will increase a little.

   The nuclear transmutation of several elements confirmed by the experiment is qualitatively explained assuming the single neutron absorption by elements in the surface layer. The decrease of Ru might be explained by a single n-p cluster absorption.

 

1.              Introduction

   The cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), i.e. low energy nuclear reactions in solids with high density hydrogen isotopes at near room-temperature in a non-equilibrium condition including ambient radiations, has been observed in various materials composed of mainly transition metals and hydrogen isotopes. The phenomenon is characterized by extraordinary excess energy inexplicable by ordinary chemical and physical processes possible to occur in systems at temperatures around ordinary environment without specific acceleration mechanism. This is the reason some nuclear reactions should be relevant to the cause of the CFP. Based on the experimental data sets obtained until now, the nuclear reactions in CF materials are supposed to occur at boundary regions between a host material (e.g. NiHx wire) and a guest material (e.g. layer composed of multiplly coated nano-films of Pd and (B, Sr, Ba, Th) compound). The guest material is formed automatically in the surface/boundary regions of a host material unintentionally on the surface of cathode in an electrolytic experiment or on the surface of electrode in a plasma discharge experiment [1 – 2]. In some experiments, the guest material is intentionally formed on the host material by artificial manner; coating alien elements on a metal surface or depositing elements on a cathode surface. There are such several examples of artificially formed guest materials as those of Yamaguchi [3], Patterson [4], Szpak [5], Iwamura [6], Celani [7] among others.

The different role of the host and guest materials is speculated as follows from our point of view. The role of the host material (NiHx, PdDx, TiDx, - - - ) composed of an interlaced lattices of host metal and occluded hydrogen isotope is to form the cf-matter with a dense neutron liquid.

On the other hand, the guest material composed of irregular array of elements gives an active region for the nuclear reaction resulting in the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP). The neutron Bloch wave in the host material reacts with alien nuclei disturbing regularity of the host material. This is the reason that the nuclear reaction occurs at surface/boundary regions of the host and a guest material.

The alien nuclei in the guest material become agents of the nuclear reactions resulting in the cold fusion phenomenon, i.e. nuclear reactions in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides in ambient radiation at room temperature or at even higher temperatures.

   The interesting experimental data obtained in multiplly nanocoated Ni wire are investigated from this point of view to give qualitative and semi-quantitative explanation of their typical results.

 

2. Experimental

   In the experiment by Celani et al. [7], the sample is a Ni wire („† = 50 ƒΚm and length of 82 cm, mass of 14 mg) multiplly nano-coated (final thickness ≈ 1 ƒΚm) by Pd and a compound including B, Sr, Ba, and Th by 50 times successive coating. A schematic section of the nanocoated Ni wire is shown in Fig. 1. We can see the system as composed of two parts; the central part is consist of NiHx forming the host material of the system and the outer part is consist of stratified fifty thin layers of different components including Pd, B, Sr, Ba, Th, H (D). In several experiments to the active gas (H2 and/or D2) was added Ar (20-50%) in order to decrease the thermal conductivity and, as consequence, increase the wire temperature at a constant applied electrical power.

 

Fig. 1 Schematic cross section of the multiplly nanocoated Ni wire.

 

The Ni wire nanocoated, after several loading-deloading and thermal high temperatures cycles, at very high temperatures (900‹C) and under electromigration current of the order of 40-45 kA/cm2, showed an excess power, in respect to a similar gvirginh wire with the same applied power (148W), of about 26W. The (main) gas atmosphere was hydrogen added of argon (ratio 60/40) at a pressure of 6 atm at room temperature.

Some compositional and isotopic anomalies were detected by PIXE and ICP-MS analysis. Some of them are so large that it is difficult to think they can arise from systematic or statistic errors. As a general trend, by ICP-MS analysis, in the case of elements with several isotopes (B, Sr, Ba), the rate of decreasing is larger for lighter isotopes. Such effect is clearly evident with B10/B11 ratio: it decreased of over 14%. A special situation happened for Pd coating: it seems reduced (about 5%) Mass 105 (isotopic abundance 22.3%) and largely (about 9%) increased Mass 102 (isotopic abundance 1%).

In Fig.2 are shown the results of analysis by PIXE [7].

 

Fig. 2 Change of elemental composition before and after H2 gas loading by PIXE.

 

3. Theoretical investigation

   According to the recipe of the TNCF model [Kozima Development, Science,], excess energy and nuclear products may be generated by all nuclear reactions occurring in the sample as a whole, mainly in the guest material.

3.1 Nuclear Reactions between Trapped Neutrons and Nuclei in the Guest Material

   The trapped neutron in the TNCF model exists in the host material and its density is vastly intensified at surface/boundary regions where is the guest materials.

Number NnX of nuclear transmutation (NT) of a nucleus X by absorption of a neutron in the TNCF model;

   NnX = 0.35nnvnnXƒΠnXVƒΡ                                      (1)

where nn and vn are the number density and thermal velocity of the trapped neutrons in the model, nX is the number density of the nucleus X in the active volume V where the transmutation occurs in a time ƒΡ, and ƒΠnX is the absorption cross section of a thermal neutron by the nucleus X ([1] Section 11.1, [2] Sec. 3.2).

   It should be noticed at first that we have determined the parameters nn using many experimental data sets and tabulated them in Tables 11.2 and 11.3 of [1] (and Tables 2.2 and 2.3 of [2]) . The values have been determined as tabulated there and are in the range 108 to 1011 cm–3.

   Numerical values in the equation (1):

 vn = 2.20 ~ 105 cm/s (at room temperature)

 nPd = 6.88 ~ 1022 cm–3 (assuming Pd lattice)

 ƒΠnPd105 = 2.025 ~ 10 b = 2.025 ~ 10–23 cm2 (for 105Pd and thermal neutron)

 ƒΠnB10 = 3.837 ~ 103 b = 3.837 ~ 10–21 cm2 (for 10B and thermal neutron)

The cross sections of neutron capture increase, like 1/E in log-log scale, at lower energies. In principle, the energy of neutron can be even lower than thermal.

The Eq. (2.1) for the number of reactions in a volume V and time ƒΡ is rewritten as follows to make the meaning of each term clearer;

     NnX = (0.35nnvn) (nXƒΠnX)(VƒΡ).                                  (2)

The quantity in the first bracket relates to the cf-matter in the host material, the second to the agent element X, the third to the experimental condition. The relevant quantity of the isotope AZX of an element X in the sample is ƒΟXAƒΠXA where ƒΟXA is the abundance in percent and ƒΠXA is the cross section for a neutron absorption of the isotope AZX. If we know the density nX of the element X in the sample, we obtain the relevant quantity (nXƒΠnX) of the element X in Eq. (2) by summing up ƒΟXAƒΠXA over A and multiplying by nX;

 NnX = (0.35nnvn) nX‡”AƒΟXAƒΠXA VƒΡ.                               (3)

To calculate excess heat generated by nuclear reactions in the sample, we need another modification of the equation. If a reaction between a thermal neutron and a nucleus X generate excess energy qX, the total excess energy QX in a unit volume and unit time is given by the number NnX of reactions in the volume V and time ƒΡ multiplied by qX and divided by VƒΡ;

      QX = QX(V, ƒΡ)/VƒΡ = NnX qX.                                     (4)

   When there are isotopes AZX of the element X with abundance ƒΟXA, the corresponding energy QA by an isotope AZX generating qXA is given as follows;

       QA = 0.35nnvn nXƒΟXAƒΠXAqXA

And then, the total energy QX by the element X with a density nX in a unit volume and time is given by a summation of QA over A;

    QX = ‡”AQA =0.35nnvn nX‡”AƒΟXAƒΠXAqXA.                          (5)

   If there are several agent nuclei X, Xf, - - - in the active region, the total excess energy Q generated in a sample in unit volume and time is given by summation of the QX over X;

Q = ‡”XQX = 0.35nnvn‡”X nX‡”AƒΟXAƒΠXAqXA.                         (6)

 

3.2 Explanation of Experimental Data by the TNCF Model

   Qualitative explanation of experimental facts explained in Section 2 is naturally deduced from the characteristics of the TNCF model. Brief explanation is given as follows.

3.2.1 Decrease of B10/B11 ratio and 10546Pd.

   The change of a nucleus AZX of an element X is governed by a quantity (nXƒΠnX) of Eq. (3). Looking into the table of nuclei, we know this quantity@(nXƒΠnX) for 105B iB10jand 10546Pd is very large compared to other isotopes of these elements; 7.59 ~ 103 and 4.522, respectively. The larger the value (nXƒΠnX) of a nucleus AZX is, the more nuclei transmute to the isotope with a higher mass number A+1ZX. Therefore, 105B and 10546Pd decrease remarkably compared to other isotopes.

   The decrease of 10546Pd by 5% in one month is used to calculate the parameter nn in Eq. (1) to give the value for this case;

     nn = 2.5 ~ 1011 cm–3.                                           (7)

This value is in the upper level of nn determined hitherto and we may expect occurrence of nuclear reactions mediated by the neutron-proton cluster 42ƒΒ in this system.

 

3.2.2 General Tendency of Isotope Change

It is noticed that the rate of decreasing is larger for lighter isotopes in the case of elements with several isotopes (B, Sr, Ba). This tendency is explained by the same reasoning given above for the decrease of 105B and 10546Pd. The nuclear transmutation governed by the quantity (nXƒΠnX) shifts isotopes to the ones with a higher mass number by one.

 

3.2.3 Decrease of Sr and Pd, and increase of As.

   Looking into the table of isotopes, we notice that Sr and Pd have many isotopes which decay into other elements after absorption of single neutron. For instance, we can write down several such reactions as follows;

n + 8438Sr ¨ 8538Sr* ¨ 8537Rb – e, Q = 1.07 MeV, (ƒΡ = 64.84 d)      (8)

n + 8838Sr ¨ 8938Sr* ¨ 8939Y + e+ ƒΛe, Q = 1.5 MeV, (ƒΡ = 50.53 d)      (9)

n + 10246Pd ¨ 10346Pd* ¨ 10345Rh – e, Q = 0.543 MeV, (ƒΡ = 16.99 d)   (10)

n + 10646Pd ¨ 10746Pd* ¨ 10747Ag + e+ ƒΛe, Q = 0.033 MeV, (ƒΡ = 6.5 ~ 106 y) (11)

n + 10846Pd ¨ 10946Pd* ¨ 10947Ag + e+ ƒΛe, Q = 1.12 MeV, (ƒΡ = 13.7 h)   (12)

   These examples show clearly possible decrease of Sr and Pd by the mechanism of single neutron absorption followed by decay to another element.

   On the other hand, the increase of As is explained by absorption of a neutron-proton cluster 42ƒΒ even if the decrease of Ge is not confirmed in the experiment;

42ƒΒ + 7131Ge ¨ 7533As.                     (Q = ?, ƒΡ = ?)           (13)

 

3.2.4 Excess Energy Generation

   The reaction equations (7) – (11) give us possible source of excess energy by nuclear reactions between agent nuclei in the guest material and the trapped neutrons. Summing up excess energy generated in possible reactions, we can calculate total excess energy produced in the sample by the assumed mechanism of the TNCF model. The effectiveness of the model will be justified by successive explanation of the nuclear transmutation and excess energy generation adjusting the single parameter nn.

   The excess energy is expressed as follows in this model for a guest material composed of Pd, Ni, B, Sr, Ba, Th, H and Ar;

Q (MeV)

= 0.77 ~ 105 nn {0.05 nB + 0.01 nSr + 0.62 nBa + 49.65nTh + 2.67nPd + 3.67nNi + (0.737ƒΟ1 + 3.44 ~ 10–3 ƒΟ2 ) nH + 1.63 nAr} ~ 10–24.                                (14)

@@nX is the number density in cm–3 of an element X, and ƒΟ1 and ƒΟ2 are ratios of protium and deuterium in the guest material, respectively.

   Illustrative calculation of this value Q for a surface layer, or a guest material, on the Ni wire is made for a hypothetical composition PdH and the value of nn given in Eq. (9). The result is given as

     Qth = 0.09 W                                                (15)

for the sample with the same size used in the experiment [7]. This value should be taken as an average value of the excess energy expected in the hypothetical system with the same sample size to the one in the experiment [7].

   The maximum excess energy measured in the experiment is rewritten as follows;

     Qex, max = 25.2 W.                                              (16)

   If we know the average value of the excess energy observed in the experiment, the comparison becomes more meaningful. It may be possible to assume the average value is one order of magnitude smaller than the maximum (16). In the theoretical formula (14), there are several effective terms for the excess energy production such as the terms by Ba, Th, Ni and 11H in addition to that of Pd. Considering these possible contributions to the excess energy, the value given in Eq. (15) will be increased by a factor of one order of magnitude.

 

4. Conclusion and Discussion

   The analysis briefly explained in this paper gives consistent explanation of the experimental data [7] in themselves and also consistent with other experimental data sets obtained since 1989 and explained with our model [1, 2]. Further, specific experiments and more detailed elemental analysis are needed for a conclusive understanding/explanation of the phenomena.

   It will be useful to plan novel experiments considering relations of several observables a part of which described in this paper. The science of the cold fusion phenomenon should be established on systematic data sets in physics, chemistry and catalytic chemistry of materials exhibiting wonderful events inexplicable by conventional knowledge.

 

References

1 H. Kozima, Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon (Ohtake Shuppan Inc., 1998). ISBN 4-87186-044-2.

2. H. Kozima, The Science of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon, Elsevier Science, 2006. ISBN-10: 0-08-045110-1.

3. E. Yamaguchi and T. Nishioka, "Direct Evidence for Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Deuterated Palladium," Proc. ICCF3 (October 21 - 25, 1992, Nagoya, Japan), p.179, Universal Academic Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1993.

4. Patterson G.H. Miley and J.A. Patterson, gNuclear Transmutations in Thin-film Nickel Coatings undergoing Electrolysis,h J. New Energy 1-3, pp. 5 – 34 (1996).

5. Szpak S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. H. Miles, gCalorimetry of the Pd + D Codeposition,h Fusion. Technol., 36 (1999) 234-241.

6 Y. Iwamura, T. Itoh, M. Sakano and S. Sakai, gObservation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexes,h Proc. ICCF9 (2002, Beijing, China) pp. 141 – 146 (2005).

7 F. Celani, P. Marini, V. Di Stefano, M. Nakamura, O.M. Calamai, A. Spallone. A. Nuvoli, E. Purchi, V. Andreassi, B. Ortenzi, E. Righi, G. Trenta, A. Mancini, A. Takahashi and A. Kitamura, gFirst measurement on Nano-coated Ni Wire, at Very High Temperature, under He, Ar, H2, D2 Atmosphere and Their Mixtures,h Paper presented at 9th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals (Certosa di Pontignano, Siena-Italy; Sept. 17 – 19, 2010).