CFRL News No. 29 (2001. 11. 10)

                 常温核融合研究所      小島英夫

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   CFRL News (Cold Fusion Research Laboratory News) No. 29 をお届けします。


1) 常温核融合の講義PSUの冬学期に開講されます

2) ”The Making of the Atomic Bomb” by Richard Rhodes を読む(2)





1.    Lecture of Cold Fusion Science in Winter Term at PSU

ポートランド州立大学PSUの冬学期に、2単位の講義Solid State-Nuclear Physics” by Hideo Kozimaを開講することになりました。この講義は、学部の4年生と大学院生向けのもので、New York Community Trust財団の経済的援助と物理学科主任のE. Bodegom教授の配慮によって実現しました。



2. R.ローズ”The Making of the Atomic Bomb” を読む(),


(R.ローズを読む(1)−中性子の発見−はこのNews No.24.に掲載しました)


   In an enterprise such as the building of the atomic bomb the difference between ideas. Hopes, suggestions and theoretical calculations, and solid numbers based on measurement, is paramount. All the committees, the politicking and the plans would have come to naught if a few unpredictable nuclear cross sections had been different from what they are by a factor of two.   (Emilio Segre, from the back of the front page of Richard Rhodes’ “The Making of the Atomic Bomb”).


1932年に発見された中性子(News No.24参照)は、他の粒子や物質との相互作用を通じてその特性を明らかにしてきました。その発端は人工核変換の発見でした。

   “Irene and Joriot Curie induced an artificial nuclear transmutation bombarding aluminum (Al) nucleus by alpha particles from polonium (Po)” (Comtes Rendus, Jan. 15, 1934)


  Leo Szilard applied a patent ‘Improvements in or relating to the Transmutation of Chemical Elements’ inducing a chain reaction – that neutron would be more efficient than alpha particles at bombarding nuclei” (March 12, 1934, p. 203).

 天才シラードLeo Szilardについては、項を改めて書きたいと思います。ローマでは、フェルミ達が中性子に着目して実験を始めました。

   “The Compte Rendus reporting the Joriot-Curies’ discovery of artificial radioactivity reached Rome in January 1934. When Fermi began his neutron-bombardment experiments, he was thirty-three years old. They used a neutron source in the form of polonium (Po) evaporated onto beryllium (Be). (Alpha particles from Po bombard Be nucleus and produce a carbon nucleus (C ) and a neutron.) They had roughly classified the effects they were seeing; Light elements generally transmuted to lighter elements by ejecting either a proton or an alpha particle. --- So, heavier elements got heavier, not lighter; they captured the bombarding neutron, there off its binding energy by emitting gamma radiation, and thus, with no added or subtracted charge, became a heavier isotopes of a negative beta ray to an elements with one more unit of atomic number.” (p. 212)


   “July 4, 1934, Leo Szilard wrote a patent amendments where are following ideas of application of chain reactions;

’The liberation of nuclear energy for power production and other purposes through nuclear transmutation.’

‘a chain reaction in which particles which carry no positive charge and the mass of which is approximately equal to the proton mass or a multiple thereof form the links of the chain.’” (p. 214)


“Marie Sklodowska Curie* born in Warsaw, Poland, on November 7, 1869, died that day of Szilard’s filing, July 4, 1934, in Savoy. Einstein’s was the best eulogy: ‘Marie Curie is,’ he said, ‘of all celebrated beings, the only one whom fame has not corrupted.’”

*キューリー夫人が1898年のRaの発見で、特許を取ろうとしなかった事実を想起しておくのも、無駄ではないでしょう。娘のエヴァが書いた著名な伝記に次の1節があります。(Madame Curie by Eve Curie, translated into English by Vincent Sheean, Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., New York, 1939.)

“Marie’s gaze grew fixed. She readily considered this idea of gain, of material compensation. Almost at once she reflected it. ‘Physicist always publish their researches completely. If our discovery has a commercial future, that is an accident by which we must not profit. And radium is going to be of use in treating disease. --- It seems to me impossible to take advantage of that.’” (p. 204)


  “In agreement with me Pierre Curie decided to take no material profit from our discovery: in consequence we took out no patent and we have published the results of our research without reserve, as well as the processes of preparation of radium. Moreover, we gave interested persons all the information they requested. This was a great benefit to the radium industry, which was enable to develop in full liberty, first in France and then abroad, furnishing to scientists and doctors the products they needed. As a matter of fact this industry is still using today, almost without modification, the processes, which we pointed out.

   The ‘Buffalo Society of Natural Science’ (in USA) has offered me, as a souvenir, a publication on the development of the radium industry in the United State, accompanied by photographic reproductions of the letters in which Pierre Curie replied most fully to the questions asked by the American engineers [1902 and 1903].” (pp. 204-205)




   “October 27, 1934, Italian group of E. Fermi found a strong effect of slow neutrons on nuclear transmutation of bombarded nuclei.” (p. 218)

“H. Bethe writes; ‘the efficiency of slow neutrons might never have been discovered if Italy were not rich in marble --- A marble table gave different results from a wooden table. If it had been done [in America], it all would have been done on a wooden table and people would never have found out.’” (p. 219)


   “Thus by the mid-1930s the three most original living physicists (Rutherford, Einstein, Bohr) had each spoken to the question of harnessing nuclear energy. --- The essential future is always unforeseen. They were experienced enough not to long for it.” (p. 218)



 “Frisch the sketch artist, good at visualizing as his aunt [Meitner] was not, had metamorphosed his liquid drop into a dividing living cell. Thereby the name for a multiplication of life became the name for a violent process of destruction. ‘I wrote home to my mother’ says Frisch, ‘that I felt like someone who has caught an elephant by the tail.’” (pp. 263 - 4)



“They (Fermi and Szilard group in Columbia University at that time) had made a rough estimate of neutron production: ‘We find the number of neutrons emitted per fission to be about two.’ --- Fermi and Anderson estimated ‘a yield of about two neutrons per each neutron captured.’” (p. 291)



 “Fermi in any case was more interested in pursuing a chain reaction in natural uranium than in attempting to separate isotopes.” (p. 298)


With this final separation from Th (in neutron irradiation of uranium 238 in cyclotron using d and Be target) Seaborg records with emphasis, it has been demonstrated that our alpha activity can be separated from all known elements and thus it is now clear that our alpha activity is due to the new element with the atomic number 94’” (p. 354)

“This gives strong indications that 94239 (239Pu) undergoes fission with slow neutrons.” (p. 355)


 “Late in 1941 Lawrence had installed such a 180-degree mass spectrometer in place of the dees in the Berkeley 37-inch cyclotron. By running it continuously for a month his crews produced a partially separated 100-mg sample of U235.” (p. 487)

“--- Based on Nichols’ schedule Groves decided in mid-March (1945) not to build more Alpha calutrons (cyclotrons for use of U235 separation), as Laurence has proposed, but to construct instead a second gaseous diffusion plant and a fourth Beta plant (factory to handle U238). ---“ (p. 602)



 “On Sunday, May 18 (1941), having finally prepared a sample thin enough for accurate measurement, they (Segre and Seaborg) calculated plutonium’s cross section for slow-neutron fission at 1.7 times that of U235.” (p.366)

“--- he (Groves) recalls ‘Every other process ---depended upon the physical separationn of materials having almost infinitesimal differences in their physical properties.’ Transmutation by chain reaction was entirely new, but the rest of the plutonium process, chemical separation, while extremely difficult and completely unprecedented, did not seem to be impossible.’” (October 1942) (p. 431)


Atomic pile for production of Pu was constructed in ‘a half-abandoned riverside village, population about 100’”.

“Tuesday evening, September 26, 1944, the largest atomic pile (for production of Pu at Hamford) yet assembled on earth was ready. It had reached dry criticality ---“ (p. 557)

“Plutonium production at Hamford depended as much on chemical separation as it did on chain-reacting piles. ---“ (p. 603)


“Ten years after the end of the war Szilard and Fermi won a joint patent for their invention of the nuclear reactor.” (p. 508)


けれども、熱エネルギー程度のエネルギーをもった中性子(熱中性子)の物質中での性質は、未だ殆ど分かっていないようです。常温核融合は熱中性子と固体、特に水素化遷移金属、の相互作用の結果として生ずる現象であるだろう、というのが、わたしのTNCFモデルの基本仮定です。最近の計算は、個体中の陽子(および重陽子)と格子核中の中性子の相互作用で、固体中の中性子系に新しい状態が生ずることを示しています。この状態が存在すれば常温核融合現象(CFP)を説明できることは、TNCFモデルで実証済みのことですから、Solid State-Nuclear Physicsの基礎は、CFPの研究を通じてホノかに見えてきたと言えるでしょう。


3. INE Symposium 2001, Report (1)

INEシンポジュームInstitute for New Energy Symposium 2001 がユタ州のソールトレークで1026-27日に開かれました。

参加者は約30人で、26編の論文が発表されました。そのうち13編は著者自身が発表し、残りは主催者が要約を説明したもの(目次で(*) のもの)です。下に目次を示します。なお、常温核融合関係の論文は少なく、表題に(**)印を着けた4編だけでした。

 (1) A Summary of the Latest Developments of High-Density Charge Technology**, Hal Fox and Vasily Baraboshkin (EEMF).

(2) Status of the INE Devices Database, and the Interest and Commercialization Criteria Rankings, Dr. Patrick Bailey (INE).

(3)* Comments on an Interesting Experimental Feature in Electrolysis Loading Experiments**, Dr. Dan Chicea (Univ. of Lucian Blaga, Physics Dept., Romania).

(4) Scalar Compression, Moray B. King.

(5) An Introduction to the EV Workshop, Kenneth Shoulders.

(6) New Sources of Energy from the Point of Unitary Quantum Theory**, Lev Sapogin, Yuri Ryabov and Valery Graboshnikov, (Department of Physics, MADI, Moscow, Russia).

(7) Magnetic Motors, Tom Valone,

(8) Magnetic Vortex Domains and Structures – Insights from Research at the Oregon Vortex, Nick Nelson.

(9) A Discussion of EVs and Audience Participation Workshop, Kenneth Shoulders.

(10) Dangers of Using Volt and Amp Meters to Measure Device Efficiency: Examples of Fraudulent Over-Unity Claims, Patrick Bailey, (INE).

(11)* Vortex Dynamics and Exploiting Energy from the Vacuum, X-l Jiang, et al. (Science School, Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Beijing, China).

(12) Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Atomic Processes in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuterides**, H. Kozima, J. Warner and G. Goddard (Physics Department, Portland State University)

(13) A Unified Classical Theory of the Electric, Magnetic and Gravitational Forces, Bruce Harvey (England, UK)

(14)* High-Density Tidal Energy Powering Ahead, Michael Maser (Blue Energy, Canada).

(15)* A New Paradigm for Time – Evidence from Empirical and Esoteric Sources, Donald Reed.

(16)* Water is the Main Power Carrier of Future Power Engineering, Ph.M. Kanarev (The Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar).

(17)* Twisting & Untwisting of Spirals of Ether and Fractal Vortices Connecting Dynamic Ethers, Chiharu Sano (International Club of Scientists, St.-Petersburg, Russia).

(18) Perspectives of the Torsion Technology, V.F. Panov. V.V. Strelkov, V.V. Yushkov, T.A. Yushkova, B.V. Testov and Hal Fox.

(19)* Fusion by Sound Waves, Gabriel Ducrey.

(20)* Energy Stored in a Gravitational Field, Mahmoud A. Melehy.

(21)* Shape Power Anti-Gravitational Breakthrough, Dan A. Davidson (RIVAS),

(22)* Why Exotic Inventions Don’t Make it into the Public Domain, Dan A. Davidson (RIVAS),

(23)* Dirac’s Equation – A Relativistic Generalization of the Schroedinger Wave Equation – The Other Half, Don Hotson.

(24)* Free Energy Surprise & Occult Ether Physics: Tesla’s Hidden Space Propulsion System and the Conspiracy to Conceal It, William Lyne.

(25)* Universal Laws, Keely’s Secrets, and Atlin, Dale Pond.

(26)* A Possible Gravity Control in Photo-luminescent Materials, Fran de Aquino (Brazil)

この目次から分かるように、いろんな論文がごちゃ混ぜになったシンポジュームでした。主催者でInstitute for New Energyの所長であるDr. Patrick Baileyは、彼の論文2と10で分かるように、まじめな研究・開発者です。CF関係の国際会議でも、あるいは日本物理学界の年会でも、いろんな研究発表が行われるのですから、New Energyを表題にしたこのシンポジュームがバラエテイ−に富んでいるのはやむをえないことでしょうか。



身近なところで夢を追求できるとすれば、それはそれで結構なことかもしれません。そんな感想を持つことになったシンポジュームではありました。Medawarゾーン(cf. P. Gluck のエッセイの境界は曖昧で屈曲しており、その外にはSFの世界が広がっているわけです。最近、こちらの「教育テレビ」OPB,テスラNicola Teslaの人と業績を1時間半番組で放映しました(再放映)。交流電場機器における彼の諸発明は、エジソンやマルコーニを凌ぐものであったことが、明らかにされていました。彼の夢とそれを実現した実力は、シラード(上記R.ローズを読む(2)参照)の夢と能力を連想させるものですが、常人にはちょっと理解不可能です。大発明家を生む土壌には、小発明家も多勢生まれるのでしょう。