CFRL News No. 27 (2001. 8. 10)
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CFRL News (Cold Fusion Research Laboratory News) No. 27 をお届けします。
1) New Paper appeared in Fusion Science and Technology
2) T. Chubb, Report of DOE Public Meeting, Washington D.C. June 26, 2001
3) INE Symposium October 26-27, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA のAnnouncement
4) RCCNT9 September 30 – October 7, 2001 Dagomys, Sochi, RussiaのAnnouncement
1 新しい論文が Journal FSTに掲載されました.
H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Fujii, K. Arai and H. Kudoh, “Possible Explanation of 4He Production in a Pd/D2 System by the TNCF Model” Fusion Science and Technology, 40, 86-90 (2001)
イタリアでのすぐれた実験結果のわれわれの解析としては、Il Nuovo Cimentoに掲載された中性子のエネルギースペクトルを解析したものに次ぐ論文です。別刷りは後一月くらいかかりそうですが、雑誌は研究機関で見られると思います。
2. Public Meeting of DOE on June 26 at Washington DC. Report by Talbot Chubb
アメリカのエネルギー省（DOE）の公聴会の様子を、出席したT. Chubbに報告してもらいました。公聴会の性格から、ただ聞き置くという程度のもののようですが、全体の流れが常温核融合から遠く離れていることは知ることが出来ます。前号のR. Smithの報告と併せてお読みください。なお、紙面の都合で、書面発表の報告IIはWebsite版にだけ掲載しました。（””内の文章がChubbの原文です。）
ワシントンのヒルトンホテルthe Washington Hiltonで6月26日に7回目の公聴会( Atlanta, Chicago, Boston, Seattle, Denver, Philadelphia and Washington.)
が開かれました。タルボットによると、これはまさしく公聴会で、議論する場ではなかったようです。“It was not like a scientific presentation meeting. Instead it was like a hearing. It was in an auditorium. In the front of the auditorium was a long dais behind which sat up to 5 officials of DOE, maybe all from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Facing these officials was a podium from which presenters made their 5-minute prepared statements. On the right side of the dais were 2 people, one of which was a court stenographer. There were 2 persons also on the left side, but I don't know their function. I guess it was like a court. The DOE officials changed during the course of the day. They were always very attentive and courteous.”
“The presentations began at 9:00, with the first hour of presentations by public officials rather than the general public. --------- Many of the speakers seem to have had past contact with DOE. Many of them talked about programs that had been jointly funded by DOE and industry. A considerable number of speakers were from industry associations. There were also talks from social advocate groups like Greenpeace and the Sierra Club.
The statements covered a wide range of activity, such as, energy efficient lighting, wind power, photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, hydrogen and methane fueled vehicles, fuel cells, insulation, thermally efficient window glass, support of inventions, Indian reservations with energy programs, etc.
Most of the statements were supportive of DOE's renewables program. The social advocates were largely critical of the Bush emphasis on energy supply rather than conservation. Most speakers appeared on schedule, gave their statements, and left, presumably to return to their regular jobs.”
“Cold fusion was mentioned only once, other than by me, in the about 6 hours I was there.”
“In addition to the verbal statements made, the DOE EERE Office accepted written statements limited to 4 pages. I have e-mailed a statement to DOE, which is appended to this letter.”
“What are the prospects? I don't think the Public Meetings will have much impact. Maybe all the material will be included in some DOE document. If so, it might be something that could be referenced. It seems unlikely that might brief statement will have an impact. However, there was total quiet while I spoke. One scatters the seed, maybe somewhere a tree will grow. I am glad that Scott talked me into attending the meeting.”
I. Oral Presentation (given at the Meeting)
“It is my view that DOE's Hydrogen Program has missed an important opportunity for developing new national energy supply. It has failed to properly consider the large amount of nuclear energy available in mass-2 hydrogen. In 1989 Professors Fleischmann and Pons presented evidence that this nuclear energy could be tapped using chemical techniques. When tapped in this way, the energy is made available without the dangerous radiation accompanying normal nuclear power generation.
Since 1989 a struggling cold fusion community has continued to do research. It has confirmed the original Fleischmann and Pons claims, developed methods that more reliably liberate the nuclear heat, and have quantitatively identified the nuclear reaction product. The nuclear reaction product is helium gas, which is already present in air at about 5 parts per million concentrations. The researchers have also identified 2 rare side products that are unique signatures of a nuclear process. In another study they have shown that the nuclear heat can be produced at elevated temperature in a controllable manner.
DOE's future Hydrogen Program should include work on this chemically induced nuclear energy. Mass-2 hydrogen is called deuterium. DOE should start a new program by first requesting the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate the recent results on radiationless deuterium fusion.(*) I have sent DOE a list with key references. DOE should then sponsor continuing work in this area.
Vice President Cheney's National Energy Policy Report states that U.S. conventional production of natural gas is projected to begin declining as early as 2015. The goal of the DOE program should be to develop the technology that makes it practical for radiationless deuterium fusion heat to start replacing natural gas in residential heating before this decline in natural gas production begins.
Fellow, American Physical Society
Presentation to DOE on 26 June 2001”
(*) Mechanisms to explain simultaneous generation of 4He and the excess heat Q.
d + d → 4He + Q1 (1)
n + d → t (7.0 keV) +Q’ (2)
t + d → 4He + n + Q” (3)
ここで Q1 = 23.82 MeV (lattice), Q’ = 6.25 MeV (γ), Q” = 17.6 MeVです。
Eqs.(2) と (3) を加え合わせるとQ2 = Q’ + Q” = 6.26 + 17.6η と置いて、次の式が得られます;
d +ηd + (n +ηt) →η4He + Q2 + (ηn + t). (4)
もし、数因子η を１ととれば、Q2 = 23.8 MeV (for η=1)となり、このとき式(4)は式(1)と基本的に同じことを表していることは、式(4)の両辺の同じ項に目をつぶる（測定しない）と分かります。
したがって、4Heの量と過剰熱の量の関係からは、(a) 直接の d-d 融合反応 (1) が起っているのか、 (b) 捕獲中性子触媒(TNCF)機構(2) と(3) が起っているのかは、区別できません。
ここで、(a) と (b)に共通の問題点を指摘しておけば、なぜ Q1 と Q2が系の熱エネルギーとして観測されて、通常の自由空間における核反応のようにガンマ線放射が起こらないのかということです。このことのTNCFモデルでの説明は、何度か述べましたが、中性子滴の核との相互作用でエネルギー緩和の新しいチャネルができるだろうということです。
各機構に固有な問題点は、(a) 反応(1)の確率がなぜ大きくなるのか（多くの理論家がそんなことはありえないと批判しているのに）、(b) 反応 (2) と (3)の割合がなぜ等しいのか, i.e. η= 1、ということになるでしょう。もっとも、後者は必ずしも等しい必要はないので、0.5-1の間の数値ならば、実験結果の誤差範囲に入ると思われます。その場合は、トリチウムが測定されることになり、ある種の実験には好都合です。
“These comments are directed at DOE's "Hydrogen Program", and, in particular, towards any portion of the research and development effort directed towards augmenting national energy supply.
It is important that the future research and development portion of the Hydrogen Program include study of systems, which explore heat production by chemically-induced nuclear fusion of deuterium atoms.(*) This type of heat generation was reported by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989, and subsequently confirmed in key experiments during the 1989 to 2000 period. The nuclear reaction product has been shown to be helium-4, which is totally benign and present in room air at a concentration of ~5 ppm. The reaction energy is ~ 24 MeV per He atom, (~ 2.3 million MJ/mol of reaction product). The fuel resource base is inexhaustible on the human time scale. The future energy cost is likely to be less than the cost of energy produced by burning natural gas. Although the reaction is a nuclear reaction, no radiation has been detected accompanying heat generation.
DOE in its current and past programs has failed to correctly evaluate the potential of radiationless deuterium fusion to contribute to the future national energy supply.
A list of experiments and references that clearly demonstrate the reality of chemically induced deuterium fusion with the creation of helium-4 is provided at the end of these comments.
Six steps are recommended in order to accelerate research in chemically induced radiationless deuterium fusion(*) (deuterium-based cold fusion):
1) Most important. Get the National Academy of Science to review the key experimental studies on radiationless deuterium fusion that are listed in these comments.
2) Add to the current SRI research effort on radiationless deuterium fusion. The McKubre and Tanzella program at SRI has been very successful. It is the only US government supported program.
3) Reconstitute the Liaw and Liebert U. Hawaii molten salt electrolysis cold fusion program that was active in 1990. (Liaw and Liebert used different technology than that used by the SRI team)
4) Support exploratory radiationless deuterium fusion experiments based on surface-gas interface interactions, deuterium surface diffusion, and energized atom/ion metal surface excitations.
5) Support theory studies in the area of hydrogen-in-metals, coherent quantum-delocalized hydrogen systems, and Bose-Einstein-condensate atom systems, so as to better understand the many-body physics responsible for radiationless nuclear reaction.
6) Support one of more additional independent groups studying the radiationless deuterium process using methods similar to or paralleling those used in the SRI and/or the U. Hawaii programs.
List of Experiments Demonstrating d-d Cold Fusion in Metal
Since the initial announcement of the Fleischmann-Pons effect there has been substantial laboratory progress in establishing the reality of excess heat produced by radiationless d-d nuclear reaction(*) in the deuterium-palladium system. Selected experimental achievements are listed below.
1. Increasingly clear observations of excess heat in heavy water electrolysis experiments using palladium cathodes. Early work is well summarized in Charles Beaudette's new book , "Excess Heat & Why Cold Fusion Research Has Prevailed", (Oak Press, LLC, South Bristol , Maine, USA, 2000). (1989-1991)
2. Fleischmann and Pons discovery of hours-long heat production in Pd cathodes after electrolysis turn-off . This phenomenon is called "heat after death". (1993)
3. Mass spectrometer observations of helium-4 in the electrolysis off-gas in experiments by Miles , B. Bush, McKubre, and Tanzella . Results were presented by McKubre at the Western Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Ontario, California in October 1999, and also at the ICCF8 Meeting in Lerici, Italy in May 2000. Observed helium was quantitatively measured and shown to have been produced at rate of 1 helium atom per 24 MeV of released heat.(1993, 1999)
4. Arata and Zhang development of the DS-cathode , which has produced watts of excess heat 10 times in a row when used with the Arata and Zhang protocol . (1994)
5. Successful transfer of the Arata and Zhang DS-cathode technology developed at Osaka University to the McKubre laboratory at SRI  . (1999) 6. Observation of heat and helium-4 generated in D2-loaded 0.5% Pd-on-carbon catalyst, observed by Case  and verified by McKubre et al.  (1998, 1999)
7. Observation of by-product helium-3 by Arata and Zhang  and with great clarity by Clarke and McKubre et al. during study of materials from previously run DS cathodes. Helium-3 was repeatedly observed at a helium-3/helium-4 ratio greater than 10000 times ambient value . (1997, 2000)
8. Observation of tritium in gas from a post-run DS-cathode, as measured by the build-up of helium-3 in stored chemically purified hydrogen samples by Clarke, Oliver, and McKubre et al.  (2000)
Laboratory potential for Major Power Production
9. Clear observation by Liaw et al.  for 25 W of excess heat at greater
than 460 C during anodic deposition of D- ions onto a Pd anode from a molten
salt electrolyte. Excess power exceeded electrolysis input power by factor
of 15; power density was 627 W/cc Pd; duration of high power was 1 day, of
elevated power was 4 days. Power controlled by current density. Single
 M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, "Electrochemical Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium", J. Electroanal. Chem., 261, 301 (1989). Hawkins, M. was added to the list of authors.
 C. G. Baudette, Excess Heat & Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed (Oak Grove Press, South Bristol, ME, USA, 2000).
 S. Pons and M. Fleischmann, "Heat After Death", Trans. Fusion Technol. 26,. 87 (1994).
 M. H. Miles and B. F. Bush, "Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium", Trans. Fusion Technol., 26, 156 (1994).
 M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi and P. Hagelstein, "The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems.: Evidence for 4He and 3H Production", Proc. ICCF8, ed. by F. Scaramuzzi, p. 3 (2001). M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, and P. Tripodi, Presentation made at the Western Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, October 1999.
 Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion ('Cold-Fusion'"), Proc. Japan Acad. , 71B, 304 (1995).
 Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "A New Energy caused by 'Spillover-Deuterium'", Proc. Japan Acad. 70B, 106 (1994); Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Solid State Plasma Fusion ('Cold Fusion')", J. High Temperature Soc. Japan. 23 (Special Vol.), 1 (1998).
 L. C. Case, "Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4", Proc. ICCF-7, p. 48 (1998).
 Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Helium (4He, 3He) within Deuterated Pd-Black", Proc. Japan Acad.73B, 1 (1997).
 M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi and P. Hagelstein, Presentation made at the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion, May 2000. W. B. Clarke, B.M. Oliver, M.C.H. McKubre, F.L. Tanzella, and P. Tripodi, "Search for 3He and 4He in Palladium-Black from Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes, II: Evidence for Tritium Production, Fusion Technol., (2001). " (in Press) Also see .
 B.Y. Liaw, P-L. Tao, P. Turner, P. and B.E. Liebert, "Elevated-Temperature Excess Heat Production in a Pd-D System", J. Electroanal. Chem., 319, 161 (1991).
3. INE Symposium October 26-27, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Institute for New Energy 新エネルギー研究所の表記研究会が開かれます。H. Foxからの連絡文を掲載します。
Dear new-energy expert,
We are pleased to invite you to present a paper at the 2001 New Energy Symposium which will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah on October 26-27, 2001. Speakers will not be required to pay for attendance at the conference.
The major topics to be presented will, of course, involve the description of new-energy devices, some of which are in the process of being commercialized.
At least two of the new-energy devices, which are in process of being developed to a commercial stage, obtain their excess energy from tapping zero-point energy or the energy of the aether. Therefore, we are pleased to ask for papers that more fully describe the aether. A separate part of our journal will be devoted to papers on the aether.
You may want to read and cite as a reference the following paper:
Colin J. Campbell and Jean H. Laherr Sre, "The End of Cheap Oil," Scientific American, March 1998.
This paper clearly shows that oil production peaked in the U.S. in 1970 and production has been reducing each year since. The paper shows that world oil production is expected to peak about 2010. This factor will cause a serious rise in the cost of energy unless some of the new-energy devices are commercialized during this decade.
Please send us an abstract about the paper that you desire to present at this important conference. We would like to have abstracts received in our office before the end of August, 2001.
Your paper will be published in the Proceedings of the 2001 New Energy Symposium by the Journal of New Energy. THEREFORE, PLEASE PLAN ON PROVIDING A COPY OF YOUR PAPER AT THE TIME OF THE CONFERENCE.
*For more information about the Meeting, please contact Hal Fox by E-mail address <email@example.com>.
4. The 9th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation (RCCNT-9)
常温核融合ロシア会議 RCCNT9が今年もソチの近くのドガムスで開かれます。案内を掲載します。申し込み期限が過ぎていますが、その辺はロシア流に何とかなるのではないかと思いますので、関心のある方はY. Bazhutovにご連絡ください。
The 9th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation (RCCNT-9) is to be held during September 30 – October 7, 2001. The place of the Conference is in Dagomys near the city of Sochi that is the best recreation and holiday place on the Black See shore of Russia.
The program of the Conference includes the following subjects:
The organizing Committee of the Conference is pleased to invite you to attend the Conference. The terms of your participation are as follows:
The full cost is $900, which will include the registration fee, hotel reservation and living, three daily buffet meals, conference proceedings, transportation from the Sochi airport and back, social dinner and special excursion or entertainment.
The languages of the Conference are Russian and English.
The total cost can be reduced down to $800 if transferred before August 10 to the account of the Organizing Committee shown below:
Intermediary: Sabrrumm 100 Saving Bank of the Russian Federation Moscow Bank;
Account with institution: 891200011 at Izmailovskoye Branch 2695/0437;
Account holder: Yuri Nikolaevich Bazhutov;
Personal account: 42304.840.3.3834.0600137
The correspondence banks of the Moscow Saving Bank of Russian Federation in your country you will find attached.
If you make a decision to take part in the Conference please let us know before July 20 about the title and abstract of your report.
Contact telephone: (7)(095) 196-7117 (ask Mr. Igor Goryachev)
Fax: (7)(095) 196-6108
Address: 123182, Moscow, Russia, 1 Kurchatov Sq., I Goryachev
105077, p/o box 169, Yu. Bazhutov
Yu. Bazhutov, Chairman of the Organizing Committee