CFRL English News No. 36 (2002. 6. 10)

Cold Fusion Research Laboratory (Japan)  Dr. Hideo Kozima, Director

                            E-mail address;



   This is the Early Edition of the CFRL News (in English) No. 36 for Cold Fusion researchers published by Dr. H. Kozima, now at Physics Department and the Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory, Portland State University.

This issue contains following items.

1) ICCF9 was successfully held in Peking.

2) Oral Presentation ghExcited State of Neutrons in a Nucleus and Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuteridesh at ICCF9

3) Course Evaluation of gSolid State-Nuclear Physicsh (2)



1. ICCF9 (May 19 – 24, 2002, Beijing, China) Was Successfully Held in Hot Peking

   After 13 years from declaration of discovery of the cold fusion phenomenon, the Ninth International Conference on Cold Fusion chaired by X.Z. Li of Tsinghua University was held in Peking under construction. More than 100 papers were presented at the Conference with more than 200 participants. Proceedings of ICCF9 will be published from Springer-Verlag in near future. Following is my subjective edition of Abstract of papers presented at the Conference.


Contents of Abstracts


Private gAbstracts of Papersh presented at ICCF9 are edited based on the Official gAbstractsh of the Conference and information obtained by the present editor (H.K.) for readersf convenience.

Presentations are grouped according to affiliations of the authors listed in the gAbstractsh and are arranged alphabetically by one of the names in the co-authors arbitrary chosen by the editor. The original numbering and the page of a presentation in the gAbstractsh are shown in a square bracket following the title as [38, p.3].

 The notation without page as [83, ] shows there is no abstract in the gAbstracts.h An asterisk on the author as gChicea*, D.h shows that the author did not present the paper and as gChubb*, S. (Chubb, T)h shows that the paper was presented by Chubb, T at the Conference.

Some presentations were not printed in the gList of Papersh in gAbstractsh but their abstracts are printed in them and included in this list without signification of the numbering as [ , p.93].


1). Arata, Y., Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and Nuclear Fusion [38, p.3].

2). Arata, Y., Nuclear Fusion Reaction inside a Metal by Intense Sono-implantation Effect [39, p.4].


3). Biberian, J.-P., Deuterium Gas Loading of Palladium, Using a Solid State Electrolyte, [22, p.53].


4). Case, L., There is a Fleischmann-Pons Effect. The Process is Electrolytic, but the Effect is Catalytic [81, p.63].


5). Celani, F., Electrochemical D Loading of Palladium Wires by Heavy Ethyl-Alcohol and Water Electrolyte, Related to Ralstonia Bacteria Problematic. [27, p.10].

6). Spallone, A. (Celani, F.), Experimental Studies to Achieve H/Pd Loading Ratio Close to 1, in Thin Wires, using Different Electrolytic Solutions [34, p.101].


7). Chicea*, D., On New Elements On Cathode Surface after Hydrogen Isotopes Absorption [59, p.13].

8). Chicea*, D., On Current Density and Excess Power Density in Electrolysis Experiments [60, p.14].


9). Chubb*, S.(Chubb, T), Concerning the Relationship between Microscopic and Macroscopic Interactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Lessons Learned from D+D à 4He [82, p.15].

10). Chubb, T., Production of Excited Surface States by Reactant-Starved Electrolysis [83, ].

11). Chubb, T., Role of Helium and Water Loss in the Clarke et al. Study of Arata-Style Cathodes [84, p.17].


12). Dash, J., Effects of Glow Discharge with Hydrogen Isotope Plasmas on Radioactivity of Uranium [86, ].

13). Warner, J. (Dash, J.), Electrolysis of D2O with Titanium Cathodes: Enhancement of Excess Heat and Further Evidence of Possible Transmutation [104, p.119].


14). De Ninno, A., Production of Excess Enthalpy and 4He in Pd Cathodes in Electrolytic Cells [28, ].

15). Del Giudice, E. (De Ninno, A.), Time Evolution of The Electrolytic H Loading Palladium [29, p.27].

16). Di Gioacchino, D. (De Ninno, A.), Dynamic of Hydrogen Loading in Pd Tapes [30, p.26].

17). Frattolillo, A. (De Ninno, A.), Experimental Techniques for Detecting Small Quantities of 4He Gas: Problems and Solutions [31, p.24].

18). Scaramuzzi, F. (De Ninno, A.), Gas Loading of Deuterium in Palladium at Low Temperatures [33, p.25].


19). Drebushchak. V.A.. Experimental Evidence of Excess Heat Output During Deuterium Sorption-Desorption in Palladium Deuteride [61, ].


20). Dufour, J., Strong Exothermal Reaction by Passing an Electrical Current through Lead, [23, ].


21). Filimonov*, V., Cold Fusion And Transmutation Within A Nm Approach To *The Fourth Fundamental Interaction" [2, p.20].


22). Fleischmann, M., Searching for the Consequence of Many-Body Effects in Condensed Phase Systems [78, p.22].


23). Frisone, F., Theoretical Model on the Relationship between Low Energies in the Probability of Deuterium Nuclei Cold Fusion [32, p.26].


24). Fox*, H., A Review of High-Density Charge Clusters [88, p.23].


25). Goryachev, I.V., Organization, Current Status and Main Results of Russian Research in Cold Nuclear Fusion and Transmutation of Chemical Elements [64, p.28].

26). Goryachev. I.V. One More Experimental Confirmation of Reality of Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation [62, p.30].

27). Goryachev, I.V., Abnormal Results of Experimenting with Excited Substances and Interpretation of the Discovered Effects within the Frames of the Model of Collective Interaction [63, p.32].


28). Gou, Q.Q., Cold Fusion Mechanism And Cold Fusion Materials [4, p.35].

29) Sun, Yue, (Gou, Q.Q.) The Experiment On" Excess Heat" Produced by Ling Time Electrolysis with Titanium Cathode in Heavy Water [10, p.102].


30). Gulua*, L., Cold Nuclear Fusion - Basis of the Enzyme Catalysis [24, p.36].


31). Hagelstein, P., Unified Models for Anomalies in Metal Deuterides and Hydrides [87, p.37].


32). Hanawa, T., Calorimetry of  Submerged Carbon Arc [41, p.38].


33). Hora, H., Shrinking Of Hydrogen Atoms In Host Metals By Dielectric Plum Effects And Inglis-Teller Depression of Ionisation Potentials [1, p.39].


34). Itoh, T. (Iwamura, Y.), Observation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction induced by D2O Gas Permeation through Multilayer Pd Film (2) – Transmutation of Sr into Mo - [42, p.40]. 

35). Itoh, T. (Iwamura, Y.), Observation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction induced by D2O Gas Permeation through Multilayer Pd Film (1) – Transmutation of Cs into Pr - [43, p.42].

36). Sakano, M. (Iwamura, Y.), Observation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Multilayer Pd Film (2) Transmutation of Sr into Mo [53, p.40].


37). Jiang, X.L., Torsion Field Effect And Axion Model In Electrical Discharge Systems [5, p.44].


38). Kanarev, Ph.M., Model of the Atomic Nuclei [65, 45].


39). Karabut, A.B., Excess Heat Power, Nuclear Products and X-ray Emission in Relation to the High Current Glow Discharge Experimental  Parameters [66, p.48].

40). Karabut, A.B., X-Ray Emission Registration in Experiments with High-Current Glow Discharge [75, p.47].


41). Kasagi*, J., Branching Ratio of D-D Reaction in Metals at Bombarding Energies Below 10 KeV [44, p.46].


42). Kirkinskii, V.A., Numerical Calculations of Cold Fusion Rates in Metal Deuterides [67, 51].


43). Kozima, H., Consistent Explanation of Topography Change and Nuclear Transmutation in Surface Layers of Cathode In Electrolytic Cold Fusion Experiments [90, p.54].

44). Kozima, H., Excited States of Nucleons in a Nucleus and Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuterides [91, p.56].

45). Kozima, H., Consistent Explanation of Data Sets obtained By McKubre et al. (Excess  Heat and 4He), Clarke (Null Results of 4He, 3He) and Clarke et al. (Tritium) with Arata Cell. [92, p.58].


46). Kuhne, R., The Micro Hot Fusion Scenario [25, p.61].


47). Li, J.Q., Physical Basis of Cold Fusion Excited in TiD2 Lattice [6, p.66].


48). Li, X.Z., Deuterium Flux and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Solid - Progress in Gas-Loading D/Pd Experiments [7, p.62].

49). Li, X.Z., "Super Absorption"- Progress in Selective Resonant Tunnelling Model [8, p.64].

50). Chen, Si. (Li, X.Z.), Tritium Production And Selective Resonant Tunnelling Model [3, ].

51). Tian, Jian, (Li, X.Z.) Excess Heat and -Heat after Deathh in a Gas-Loading H/Pd System [11, p.108].

52). Tian, Jian, (Li, X.Z.) Exothermic Effect and Correlation with Deuterium Flux in a D/Pd Gas-Loading System [12, p.107].

53). Wei, Q.M. (Li, X.Z.), Replication, and Some Improvements [14, p.120].

54). Wu, Wei, (Li, X.Z.) Hydrogen Flux, Multiple-Layer Thin Film, Infrared Thermal Imaging in Gas-Loading Experiments [15, p.121].


55). Lu, R.B., Objectivity And Universality Of A New Physical Process [9, p.71].


56). Matsumoto, T., Cold Fusion Like Phenomena in Natural Fields [45, p.73].

57). Matsumoto, T., Studies of Coherent Deuteron Fusion and Related Nuclear Reactions in Solid [46, p.74].


58). McKubre, M., Progress Toward Replication [96, p.76].

59). Violante, V. (McKubre, M.), X-Ray Emission during Electrolysis of Light Water on Palladium and Nickel Thin Films [35, p.110].

60). Violante, V. (McKubre M.), Metallurgical Effect on the Dynamics of Hydrogen Loading in Pd [36, p.111].


61). Miles, M.H., The Elevation of Boiling Points in H2O and D2O Electrolytes [97, p.77].

62). Szpak*, S (Miles, M.H.)., Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-Deposition [101, p.104].


63). Miley, G.H., Progress In Thin-Film LENR Research [98, p.79].

64). Castano, C (Miley, G.H.), Calorimetric Measurements during Pd-Ni Thin Film Cathodes Electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O Solution [80, p.8].

65). Kim, S.-O. (Miley, G.H.), Characterization of Pd-Ni Thin Film by Annealing Method [89, p.49].

66). Lipson*, A.G. (G.H. Miley), Anomalous Thermal Neutron Capture and Sub-Surface Pd-Isotopes Separation in Cold-Worked Palladium Foils as a Result of Deuterium Loading [93, p.67].

67). Lipson*, A.G. (G.H. Miley), In-situ Charged Particles and X-Ray Detection in Pd Thin-Film Cathodes during Electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O [94, p.69].

68). Luo, N. (Miley, G.H.), In-situ Characterisation of Sputtered Thin-film Electrodes during Electrolysis [95, p.72].


69). Miyamoto, M., Deuterium Ion Beam Irradiation of Palladium under in-situ Control of Deuterium Density [47, p.81].


70). Mizuno, T., Relation Between Neutron Evolution and Deuterium Permeation for a Palladium Electrode [48, p.82].


71). Nassikas, A., Space Time energy Pump and Cold Fusion [26, p.84].


72). Novikov*, Y.A., Fusion Reaction Probability in Iron Hydride and Problem of Nucleosynthesis in the Earth Interior [69, p.85].


73). Ohmori, T., Anomalous Increase in 41K Isotope in Potassium Formed on/in a Rhenium Cathode During the P1 Electrolysis and Excess Heat Generated Concomitantly [50, p.86].


74). Ota, K., Heat Measurement during Light Water Electrolysis using Pd./Ni Rods Cathodes [52, p.89].


75). Passell, T., Evidence For Li-6 Depletion In I'd Exposed To Gaseous Deuterium [99, p.92].


76). Prevenslik, T., Fusion Neutrons at Ambient Temperature? [ , p.93].


77). Romodanov*, V.A., Tritium Registration in Metal-Hydrogen Systems [70, p.86].

78). Romodanov*, V.A., The Interaction of Hydrogen Isotopes with Metals and Development of Hybrid Reactors [71, p.94].

79). Romodanov*, V.A., The Optimisation of the Glow Discharge Parameters and Development of the Power Installations [72, p.95].


80). Roussetski*, A. Long-Range Alpha-Particle Emission from Puni2 Structure [73, p.97].


81). Sanchez Ropez*, C.R., Simultaneous Proton and Electron Injection into Ionic Conductors [77, p.98].

82). Pascueal Salvador, A. (Sanchez, C.R.), Electrolysis with Nanometric Pd Cathodes [76, p.91].


83). Savvatimova, I., Emission Registration on Films during Glow Discharge Experiments [74, p.99].


84). Stringham, R., Model for Pinched Cavitation Jets Producing Fusion Events [100, p.102].


85). Takahashi, A., Tetrahedral and Octahedral Resonance Fusion under Transient Condensation of Deuterons at Lattice Focal Point [54, p.105].

86). Dairaku, T. (Takahashi, A.), Studies of Nuclear Reactions In Solid In Titanium Deuteride under Ion Beams Implantation [40, p.19].

87). Ohta, M. (Takahashi, A.), Analysis on Nuclear Transmutation by MPIF/SCS Model [51, p.88].


88). Tanaka*, T. (Himeno, S), A Possible New Enhancement Mechanism Of Nuclear Fusion [55, p.106].


89). Tsuchiya, K., A Possible Model for the Nuclear Reaction in Metal Vacancy including Condensed Bose Particles [56, p.109].


90). Vysotskii*, V.I., Optimised D-D fusion without Coulomb Barrier in a Volume of Cold Gas [79, p.112].

91). Vysotskii*, V.I., Catalytic Influence of Ce on the Effectiveness of Nuclear Transmutation of Intermediate and Heavy Mass Isotopes in Growing Biological Cultures [ , p.114].

92). Kornikova, A.A. (Vysotskii, V.I.), Investigation of Combined Influence of Sr, Cl and S on the Effectiveness of Nuclear Transmutation of ^{54}Fe Isotope in Biological Cultures [68, p.52].


93). Waber, J., Production of Excess Heart and Alpha Particles based on the Bosons In – Bosons Out Principle [103, p.116].


94). Wang, X.Z., Chaos Thermodynamics And Lithium Water Nuclear Reactors [13, p.117].


95). Yamada, H, Production of Ba and Several Anomalous Elements in Pd under Light Water Electrolysis [57, p.123].

96). Arapi, A. (Yamada, H.), Experimental Observation of the New Elements Production in the Deuteride and/or  Hydride Palladium Electrodes, Exposed to the Low Energy DC Glow Discharge [37, p.1].

97). Narita, S. (Yamada, H.), Anomalous Heat Evolution for Palladium Hydride in Controlled Gas Out-Diffusion [49, p.83].


98). Yamamoto*, H., A Catalytic Role of Atomic Oxygen on Anomalous Heat Generation [58, p.124].


99). Zhang, W.S., Some Problems on the Resistance Method in the in-situ Measurement of Hydrogen Content in Palladium Electrode [16, p.126].

100). Zhang, W.S., Measurements of Excess Heat in Closed Pd-D2O System Using Calvet Calorimetry [17, p.127].


101). Zhang, Z.L., Further Study on the Solution of Schroedinger Equation of Hydrogen-like Atoms [19, p.131].

102). Zhang, Z.L., Probability of Electron Captured by Deuterium [20, p.130].

103). Zhang, Z.L. Are There Some Loose Bound States of Nucleons-Nucleus Two Body System? [21, p.129].


104). Zhang, X.W., The Experimental Research of Anomalous Phenomena in H_{2}(D_{2}) Gas Discharge [18, p.128].



Summaries of Presentations at ICCF9 given on May 24, 2002


I. McKubre, M., Summary of Experimental Works

   M. McKubre reported fairly subjective but appropriate summary of experimental works presented at the Conference.


II. Hora, H., Summary of Theoretical Works

   H. Hora reported an objective summary of theoretical works presented at the Conference.


III. Takahashi, A., On International Association

   A. Takahashi presented data about JCF (Japan CF-research Association) and a proposal for the International Cold Fusion Association (tentative name). Various discussions with no decisive conclusions.


IV. Biberian, J.-P., On International Journal

   J.-P. Biberian presented an outline for the proposed Electronic International Journal of gCondensed Matter Nuclear Scienceh (tentative name). Discussion was positive for the plan. Another possibility was discussed to publish a printed version of the International Journal.


V. Dolan, T, An Outsiderfs View of Cold Fusion

   T. Dolan, hot fusion physicist, gave his comments on the Conference from his point of view outside the cold fusion community. His comments were fairly positive for the CF research advising improvements of styles in our activity.


VI. Hagelstein, P., Announcement from ICCF10 Chairman

   Next Conference ICCF10 will be held Autumn 2003 somewhere on the East Coast of the USA with the Chairperson P. Hagelstein.



2. Excited State of Neutrons in a Nucleus and Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuterides

         by Hideo Kozima, Portland State University

(Oral Presentation at ICCF9 (May 23, 2002, International Convention Center at Tsinghua University, Peking, China)


Nie Hao,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

My name is Hideo Kozima and the title of my presentation is

gExcited State of Neutrons in a Nucleus and Cold Fusion Phenomenon in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuterides.h

  At first, let me express my hearty thanks to Prof. Xing Zhong Li of Tsinghua University for his enormous effort to make ICCF9 (The Ninth International Conference on Cold Fusion) so successful as this. Also, I would like to express my thanks to Chinese people participating this Conference especially students of this University voluntarily serving at Reception Desks and in this Conference Room.

  China has very long great history lasting more than 5000 years. Yesterday, we have touched a tiny parts of its past at Ming Tombs of 13 Emperors and the Great Wall at Badaling only a short part of 6700 km long Wall. In this long history, China has had many revolutions and Evolution through them. The last Revolution – the Liberation Revolution in 1949 made birth of the Peoplefs Republic of China.

   This country has made gigantic progress in these 53 years as we see around this Conference Room in International Convention Center at Tsinghua University by the trial and error paying precious sacrifices, which were necessary expenses for progress though. Now, we are looking recent surprising progress in this city Peking everyday.

   In physics, in turn, there started a small revolution in 1989 in solid state-nuclear physics just 40 years after the Chinese Liberation Revolution of 1949. In 1926 – 27, F. Paneth et al. in Germany tried to synthesize ^{4}He in Pd metal anticipating fusion of two deuterons ^{2}H (= D)

     D + D à ^{4}He.

Unfortunately to science history but probably fortunately to Martin Fleischmann, F. Paneth failed to confirm his fantasy of synthesis of ^{4}He.

   Martin Fleischmann and his collaborators finally succeeded to measure anomalous events in the Pd/D/Li system (Pd metal with electrolytically charged deuterium (D) with electrolyte lithium (Li)), huge amount of excess heat (Q), tritium (^{3}H = T) and neutron (n) as published in 1989.

   In these 13 years from 1989, the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) including these anomalous events of nuclear transmutation (NT) generating heavy elements with mass number larger than 5 (heavier elements than ^{6}Li), production of ^{4}He, and gamma and X-ray emission in addition to Q, T and n are frequently observed in many systems with large variety of composition and structure and confirmed their reality. Most interesting event among them will be the nuclear transmutation (NT) including three types of NT_{D}, NT_{F}, NT_{A}, acronyms for nuclear transmutation by decay, by fission and by absorption, respectively.

   So, CFP should be understood now as gnuclear reactions and accompanying events occurring in solids with high densities of hydrogen isotopes in ambient radiation.h Its reality, furthermore, is unquestionable if we see the experimental data without bias in our mind.

   There are, however, many critics who do not understand scientific truth, disturbed by their Idols. Suffering by a recent small attack against me, I have realized myself importance of philosophical perspective given by modern philosophers. The pioneer of modern philosophy Francis Bacon clearly pointed out Idols disturbing our minds as if it was written yesterday.

"There are four classes of Idols which beset men's minds. To these for distinction's sake I have assigned names, - calling the first class Idols of thhe Tribe [Humanities]; the second, Idols of the Cave [Personality]; the third, Idols of the Market-place [Terminology]; the fourth, Idols of the Theatre [Establishment]." (Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, Vol.1, XXXIX (1620)) (Square brackets added in citation)

   We know many critics trapped in these Idols and made silly discussions against CF research. We, however, should be careful also for these Idols ourselves in our research of this new interdisciplinary field of solid state-nuclear physics (or condensed matter nuclear science).

   Now, we know CFP fairly well, but far away from completely. From our knowledge of CFP, we can list up necessary conditions and characteristics of CFP.

Necessary conditions of CFP:

1. Transition metal; Pd, Ni, Ti, Mo, . . . . =. M

2. Hydrogen isotopes; H, D, (T) = H

3. H/M > 0.7

4. Background neutrons

   This list shows that we should not confine our theoretical investigation to D + D fusion reactions if we want to see whole data sets consistently.


Characteristics of CFP:

0. Qualitative reproducibility

1. Sporadic and intermittent occurrence

2. Localized reactions (in surface layers of a thickness about 1 micron)

3. Optimum combinations of [transition metal] - [hydrogen isotope] - [electrolyte]*

4. Variety of products accompanied with excess heat Q, NT, ^{4}He, tritium (T, t), neutron (n), gamma, X-ray, . .

5. Definite relations between amounts of the products, N_{Q}, N_{NT}, N_{He4}, N_{t}, N_{n}, N_{gamma},

N_{Q} ~ N_{NT} ~ N_{He4} ~ N_{t} ~ 10^{7}N_{n}.


Points of View to see the New Phenomenon

It is possible to see a new phenomenon from several points of view. In reality, there have been proposed many models to understand characteristics of CFP. The point of view proposed by the author is a phenomenological model named the TNCF model based on an assumption of gtrapped neutronsh in solids with a single adjustable parameter n_{n}. This model was proposed in 1993 at ICCF4 (Hawaii, USA, 1993) and had evolution together with progress of experimental data sets (Trans. Fusion Technol. (Proc. ICCF4)) (1993, Hawaii, USA) 26, 508 (1994).).

These characteristics listed above take another form from the model point of view as tabulated in Tables 11.4 and 11.5 of my book (gDiscovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenonh Ohtake Shuppan, Tokyo, Japan, 1998). The tables projected on the screen were revised with addition of new data obtained by analyses of data sets by Coupland et al. (1991), Szpak et al. (1994), Clarke et al. (2001) and Passell (2002).


Roles of Theoretical Works

  Theory has wide common basis ranging different fields of science. Theoreticians in CFP should work to communicate with scientists in established fields and cultivate common fields in the interdisciplinary region we are working isolated from them until now. As the success of the TNCF model should reflect reality of physics behind the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), it is due work to investigate physical bases of assumptions used in the model and meaning of the parameter n_{n}.


Neutron Valence Bands in Transition-Metal Hydrides and Deuterides

  New concepts of neutron bands in solids (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 67, 3310 (1998)) and neutron drops (Fusion Technol. 37, 253 (2000)) in surface layers of CF materials have been worked out using simple model for the materials. The treatment of neutron bands (neutron conduction bands or N.C. Bands) given in the paper of 1998 is extended to include coupled neutron states in lattice nuclei in this work and a possibility of neutron valence bands (N.V. Bands) in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides is shown semi-quantitatively.

   The neutron valence bands are composed of excited neutron states in lattice nuclei (e.g. Pd) mediated by occluded hydrogen isotopes (e.g. H). Wave functions of excited neutrons in lattice nuclei at its highest bound energy are expressed by exponentially decreasing functions outside the nucleus; the damping factor of the function depends on the energy of the state and becomes small for an energy close to zero. On the other hand, occluded hydrogen nucleus, proton, is expressed by a harmonic oscillator wave function that spreads out in its excited states to touch with surrounding lattice nuclei (Pd). The extended neutron wave function touched with the proton wave function results in mutual interaction of neutrons in different lattice nuclei through interaction with a proton; this interaction will be called a super-nuclear interaction. If this interaction is strong enough to make an energy band of neutrons wider than thermal energy of ions in solids, the energy band (the neutron valence band) becomes an effective concept to describe neutron states in solids.

The quasi-quantitative estimation of the neutron valence bands (N.V. Band) in PdH and PdD shows possible appearance of the N.V. Band in them and wider band width in PdD than that in PdH in the same condition. Similar consideration shows wider band width in NiH than in NiD. Those results may correlate with experimental data showing preference of PdD and NiH than PdH and NiD, respectively, for realization of CFP in those transition-metal hydrides and deuterides. Details of the calculation will be given at Poster Booth in the poster session.

If the N.V. Bands are formed in a CF material and neutrons in lattice nuclei are excited to the excited states near zero by trigger reactions induced by gtrapped neutronsh between alien nuclei or lattice nuclei in surface layers, there appear various possibilities due to appearance of high density neutron drops (clusters of large number of neutrons and protons); most drastic reactions made possible by the appearance of neutron drops are various nuclear transmutations. We have discussed already in my book about nuclear transmutations by decay, or NT_{D}, and nuclear transmutations by fission, or NT_{F}, and explained many data sets showing nuclear transmutations explicable by decay and fission of nuclei formed from existing nuclei by absorption of a neutron. Simultaneous absorption of several neutrons are first discussed by Fisher to explain NT_{F} measured by Miley et al. (Fusion Technol. 34, 66 (1998)) Neutron drops give us possibility to explain recent data sets showing increase of mass number A and proton number Z by several figures. This nuclear transmutation is explained as those by absorption of a cluster of neutrons and protons without decay or fission and be called as nuclear transmutations by absorption, or NT_{A}.

Thus, if we want to explain various experimental data sets showing CFP with diversity of events in deuteride and hydrogen systems, only one possibility to explain them consistently is a model using a neutral particle as a catalyst for nuclear reactions. The neutron is the simplest candidate for the neutral particles for the explanation while it has not well explored its nature when it is in solids with low energy. Our tentative treatments about quantum mechanical states of neutrons in solids have shown new features of neutron physics in solids not noticed before and these characteristics of neutrons in solids should be a most important key to solve riddles of CFP (J. New Energy  6-2, 126 (2002) and ibid. 6-3, (2002) (to be published)).


3. Course Evaluation of gSolid State-Nuclear Physicsh (2)

   [The course gSolid State-Nuclear Physics" in the Winter Term, 2002 finished successfully. Three students including one undergraduate senior finally got credit. Their course evaluations were sent me from Physics Office. The summary of the Evaluation was posted in this News No.35.]


Student evaluation of teaching for the course gSolid State-Nuclear Physicsh given in the winter term of 2002 was reported to the instructor, H. Kozima, from Office of Physics Department. Comments on the course by students were posted in the former News No.35, already.

In this News, details of the evaluation for the course are given. In Japan, the course evaluation system was not popular until several years ago when the Ministry of Education (at that time) strongly recommended establishment of an official evaluation system to each University. The course evaluation system, however, has been popular in Europe and USA for long years. In under-developing countries like Japan, the education systems have been forced to be a system to produce manpower to catch up countries already in the industrialized state and had no room for education in its fundamental meaning.

The following list of items in the evaluation form used in PSU, for instance, will be useful for instructors in those countries as a sample where evaluation system may be not popular yet, apart from the result of this particular evaluation of the course Phy410/510.

Following is the principal parts of data compiled from mark sheet responses of the students. In item 1, all options for questions are illustrated from (A) to (AMBIGUOUS). In other items from 2) to the end, only the number of respondents, Mean, and number of respondents marked an answer were cited. The gMeanh of each item is a mean value of evaluation points calculated by giving a point 1.0 for A, 2.0 for B, 3.0 for C, and ---; For instance, Mean = 1.00 in the item 5) shows that this item was evaluated as highest by all students.

After the numbers of items (e.g. 5)), a sentence (The instructor) is inserted to make reading easy.


Portland State University

Department of Physics

Student Evaluation of Teaching


Course Phy410/510, Term/Year 200201, Instructor Kozima


Please mark your response to each statement by completely filling in the appropriate gbubbleh

If you are UNSURE, mark gDOES NOT APPLYh. Please use only a #2 pencil. DO NOT USE INK.


Also, please enter the Course Reference Number for this class in the block above, if it has not already been marked.



1) (The instructor) knows whether or not the class understands him/her

1 respondents, or 33.33%~ answered: HIGH A

2 respondents, or 66.669k, answered: B

0 respondents, or 0.00%, answered: C

0 respondents, or 0.00%, answered: D

0 respondents, or 0.00%, answered: LOW ‑ F

0 respondents, or 0.00%, answered: DOES NOT APPLY

0 respondents, or 0.00%, answered: AMBIGUOUS


3 total respondents    Mean = 1.67    All respondents marked an answer


2) (The instructor) keeps well informed about progress of the class

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.50     1 respondents, or 33,33%, omitted this item.


3) (The instructor) shows interest and concern in the quality of his/her teaching.

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked answer


4) (The instructor) explains his/her criticism of the student's work

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked an answer


5) (The instructor) invites students to share their knowledge and experiences

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.00     All respondents marked an answer


6) (The instructor) clarifies thinking by identifying reasons for questions raised during class

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked an answer


7) (The instructor) invites criticism of his/her own ideas

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked an answer


8). (The instructor) has a genuine interest in students

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.00     All respondents marked an answer


9). (The instructor) Quickly grasps what a student is asking or telling him/her

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.67     All respondents marked an answer


10) (The instructor) is valued for advice not directly related to the course

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.50     1 respondents, or 33.33%, omitted this item.


11) (The instructor) is enthusiastic about his/her subject

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.00   All respondents marked an answer


12) (The instructor) seems to have self-confidence

3 total respondents     Mean = 1,33     All respondents marked an answer


13) (The instructor) is a dynamic and energetic person

3 total respondents     Mean = 1,33     All respondents marked an answer


14) (The instructor) is an excellent speaker

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.67     All respondents marked an answer


15) (The instructor) presents facts and concepts from related fields

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked an answer


16) (The instructor) contrasts implications of various theories

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.33     All respondents marked an answer


17) (The instructor) seems well read beyond the subject s/he teaches

3 total respondents              Mean = 1.50    1 respondents, or 33.3%, omitted this item


18) (The instructor) speaks clearly

3 total respondents     Mean = 2,00     All respondents marked an answer


19) (The instructor) explains clearly

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.50      1 responds, or 33.3%, omitted this item.


20) (The instructor) makes difficult topics easy to understand

3 total respondents    Mean = 2.00                             1 respondents, or 33.33%, omitted this item.




(1). I have learned new ways to evaluate problems

3 total respondents    Mean = 2.00     2 respondents, or 66.66%, omitted this item.


(2). I have developed increased appreciation for the subject

3 total respondents    Mean = 1.33   All respondents marked an answer


(3) I rate this course as a learning experience relative to other courses I have taken in science

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.50     1 respondents, or 33.33%, omitted this item.


(4) I rate this course as a learning experience relative to other courses I have taken in other disciplines

3 total respondents     Mean = 1.00     2 respondents, or 66.66%, omitted this item.

End of list!