CFRL English News No. 33 (2002. 3. 10)

Cold Fusion Research Laboratory (Japan) Dr. Hideo Kozima, Director

                            E-mail address;


Dear cold fusion researchers,

This newsletter CFRL News #33 is sent to participants of one of last several ICCFs. Despite of careful check of the mailing list, there may remain duplicates or even triplicates of addresses that will be surely fixed by the next time (at mailing of News #34). If you do not want to receive future issues of this News, please send back this mail without any comment and your address will be eliminated from the list.

If someone participated one of past ICCFs and interested in receiving future issues but not received this News, he/she will receive News #34 and following issues by mailing and asking it to my e-mail address written above.@This News may be too difficult to understand for some people who could not distinguish the difference of the Bohr model and quantum mechanics of the atomic structure.

  The main reason I send this issue to so many people is related with my proposal explained in the item 2 of this News #33. Subordinate reason is related with the item 3 to notice a new attack to cold fusion research.

@Opinions and advices to improve CFRL Website and News are welcome very much.

Hoping development of cold fusion research and establishment of solid state-nuclear physics as soon as possible,


Sincerely yours,

March 10, 2002

Hideo Kozima


   This is CFRL News (in English) No. 33 published for Cold Fusion researchers by Dr. H. Kozima, now in Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory and Physics Department, Portland State University.

In this issue, there are following items.

1) Lecture Note gSolid State-Nuclear Physicsh (2)

 – Evolution of the TNCF Model –

2) Proposal to Establish an International Organization

3) Raison dfEtre of CFRL Website and News

4) Sonofusion was detected at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


1. From Lecture Note gSolid State-Nuclear Physicsh (2)

 – Evolution of the TNCF Model –


1-1. The TNCF model (gtrapped neutronh catalyzed fusion model) was first proposed at ICCF4 (4th International Conference of Cold Fusion) held in Hawaii, USA in 1993[1]. This model assumes the existence of a fictitious entity (gtrapped neutronsh) with a density nn (an adjustable parameter) in CF materials with several characteristics that are required to explain experimental data sets. Applying this model, we have systematically and successfully analyzed more than 60 experimental data sets that contained enough information for the analyses. The single adjustable parameter nn was determined in these analyses giving the range of values of 108 – 1013 cm–3. (nn = 108 – 1013 cm–3).


1-2 The gtrapped neutronh reflected an image of free thermal neutrons trapped in a piece of transition-metal deuterides (or hydrides) just like electrons in gfree electron model of metals.h

   The number of neutron absorption reactions in a volume dV and a time dis, therefore, assumed to be ([3] Eq. (11.1))

NnX = 0.35nnvnnXnXdVdу.                                (1)

Naturally enough, interaction of the gtrapped neutronsh with another nucleus in the model in this stage was confined in gsingle neutron–single nucleush interaction.


1-3 In the investigation of the physical basis of this useful model, we explored the concept of gneutron bandsh, a band structure in the energy spectrum of thermal neutrons in solids, which is called appropriately as gneutron conduction bandsh because their energies are above zero, i.e. not trapped in any lattice nucleus. This concept is applied to heterogeneous solids with surface layers of different properties for thermal neutrons. Then, it was shown that the density of neutrons near the surface layer becomes very high due to the local coherence of neutron Bloch waves reflected at the boundary [2].


1-4 In the process of CF research, abundant production of nuclear transmutation (NT) of two types is experimentally observed; one is named gNT by decayh (NTD) and another gNT by fissionh (NTF). NTD was explained quantitatively by the TNCF model as a decay of unstable nuclides formed from elements in the system by absorption of a gtrapped neutronh. NTF is, however, explained qualitatively as fission of similar nuclides [3]. In the explanation, the data by Miley et al. [4] was investigated from our point of view as results of fissions of nuclides formed by single-neutron absorption and the observed mass spectrum was interpreted by empirical law observed in fission products of n–23592U reactions as:

   gThis table shows the same tendency observed in the branching ratio of fission products of a composite nuclei formed by the n–23592U absorption reaction known in Neutron Physics that the larger the difference of masses of product nuclei is, the larger the branching ratio of the fission reaction is, although this fact is not explained yet. It is interesting to notice the same tendency is seen in the curious event, the nuclear transmutation by fission, in the cold fusion phenomenon.h ([3] p.221)

 A rather quantitative explanation of this mass spectrum data of NTF was given by Fisher [5] in 1998 using a gpolyneutronsh model, a variation of the gtrapped neutronh model.


1-5 Fisherfs gpolyneutronh is a cluster of high-density neutrons (order of 1035 cm–3) that is as fantastic an entity as gtrapped neutronsf but has the advantage of multi-neutron absorption for a nucleus. To make intermediate mass-number nuclei such as Pd and Ni to induce a fission reaction, it is necessary to transform them into heavily neutron-excess isotopes or highly unstable states by energy (this is assumed in the explanation by the TNCF model [3]) and therefore multi-neutron absorption is a reasonable idea to explain experimental data sets showing variety of product nuclides in NTF.


1-6 In the TNCF model, on the other hand, the concept of glocal coherenceh evolved into a new phase of the formation of a rather realistic gneutron droph [6] instead of Fisherfs gpolyneutron.h Furthermore, we have figured out a concept of gneutron valence bands,h neutron bands below zero (at an energy level of neutron evaporation from a lattice nucleus, nucleus composing the lattice). These bands are formed from the excited states of neutrons in a lattice nuclei that is mediated by occluded hydrogen isotopes in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides [7]. Therefore, it is necessary not only transition metals but also occluded hydrogen isotopes to realize neutron valence bands. This necessary condition is also an experimentally known necessary condition for the CFP, and therefore the CFP might be explained by the formation of gneutron valence bandsh with the above mentioned mechanism, from my point of view.


1-7 Neutrons in the gneutron valence bandsh are supplied by lattice nuclei and their number density at local coherence can reach, in optimum situations, such high values of 1023 cm–3 as the number density of Pd ions in metal; 6.88~1022 cm–3. It is noticed here that the adjustable parameter nn in the TNCF model determined from experimental data sets are in the range of 108 – 1013 cm–3 even if it was calculated on the basis of the free neutron picture.


1-8 Formation of the gneutron droph at the boundary region facilitates simultaneous multi-neutron absorption (neutrons) by a nucleus. To meet this possibility, it is better to revise the formula (1) as follows:

Nin,Xj= C(T,r)nnnXЁi˂,XjddV.                            (1f)

In this formula, C(T,r) is a constant possibly depending on the temperature and position of the sample where the reaction occurs.

The cross-sectionЁi˂,Xj@ is a cross section of the simultaneous-neutrons absorption by a nucleus X.

Processes of a single neutron absorption in (1f) should be treated as before which is consistent with the formula (1) and then the constant C1(T,r) is taken as 0.77~105@cm sP.

Nuclear fission of medium mass-number nuclei such as Pd and Ni demands largely neutron-excess nuclei formed by this multi-neutron absorption mechanism as pointed out above. Using the above value for the constant C1(T,r), we may be able to determine the cross section (n,X) for neutron absorption using experimental data sets.

Other examples of multi-neutron absorption process are observed by Dash et al. in NTD of Pd into Cd [8] (in the places where is few Ag observed) and Ti into Cr [9] (where is few V observed) by two-step successive beta-decays of unstable nuclides formed by simultaneous absorption of two neutrons. In the analyses of these data, we can determineЁi2,Xj.@


1-9 Preliminary estimation of the multi-neutron absorption cross section@@(n,X) for the data by Miley et al. {4} gives fairly large value comparable to nX of usual neutron absorption cross sections if the neutron density is the same in single and multi-neutron absorption; (n,X) `nX. In the neutron drop, however, the density of neutrons can be as high as 1031 cm–3 close to nucleon density in usual nucleus of 1035 cm–3 [6]. If we assume existence of the neutron drop, as Fisher assumed his polyneutron, and use this maximum density 1031 cm–3 to the case of multi-neutron absorption by Pd, the value of(n,X) becomes very small; (n,X) = 10–18nX. This conclusion seems rather realistic from our common sense in physics than the conclusion (n,X) `nX.

   New experimental data have given information to make a model more realistic and physics of cold fusion more probable.


1-10. The formation of the gneutron valence bandh [7] and the gneutron droph [6] with densities up to 1031 neutrons/cm3 remind us the gneutron star matterh with gCoulomb lattice of bound neutron and proton clustersh surrounded by a gdilute neutron gas.h [10,11] eLattice nucleif and eneutrons in valence bandsf in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides (CF materials) correspond to ebound neutron and proton clustersf and edilute neutron gasf in neutron star matter at sub-nuclear densities. Differences of two cases are; (1) Existence of boundary in CF materials, (2) Stability of lattice nuclei in CF materials, (3) Forces between nucleons, and (4) Densities of nucleons in CF materials (up to 1031 /cm3) and Neutron star matter (more than 1035 /cm3). Detailed discussion of this problem will be presented elsewhere. [12]



(1) H. Kozima, "Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Fusion of Deuterons and Protons in Inhomogeneous Solids," Trans. Fusion Technol. (Proc. ICCF4) (1993, Hawaii, USA) 26, 508 (1994). And also Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Cold Fusion (ICCF4)} (1993, Hawaii, USA) 4, 5 (1994).

(2) H. Kozima, K. Kaki and M. Ohta, "Anomalous Phenomenon in Solids Described by the TNCF Model," Fusion Technology 33, 52 (1998).

(3) H. Kozima, Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon – Evolution of the Solid State - Nuclear Physics and the Energy Crisis in 21st Century, Ohtake Shuppan KK., Tokyo, Japan, 1998.

(4) G.H. Miley, G. Narne, M.J. Williams, J.A. Patterson, J. Nix, D. Cravens and H. Hora, "Quantitative Observation of Transmutation Products Occurring in Thin-Film Coated Microspheres during Electrolysis", Progress in New Hydrogen Energy (Proc. ICCF6) (1996, Hokkaido, Japan), p.629 (1996). And also Cold Fusion 20, 71 (1996).

(5) J.C. Fisher, "Liquid-Drop Model for Extremely Neutron Rich Nuclei" Fusion Technol. 34, 66 (1998).

(6) H. Kozima, "Neutron Drop; Condensation of Neutrons in Metal Hydrides and Deuterides," Fusion Technol. 37, 253 (2000).

(7) H. Kozima, J. Warner and J. Dash "Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Atomic Processes in Transition-metal Hydrides and Deuterides" J. New Energy 6-2, 126 (2002).

(8) S. Miguet and J. Dash, "Microanalysis of Palladium after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Proceedings of 1st Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, College Station, Texas, p. 23 (1995). And a recent work by C. Salas Cano and J. Dash (to be published).

(9) R. Kopecek and J. Dash, "Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes", Proceedings of 2nd Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, College Station, Texas, p. 46 (1996). And also J. Warner, PhD. Theses, gInteractions of Titanium with Hydrogen Isotopesh Portland State University, 2002.

(10) G. Baym, H.A. Bethe and C.J. Pethick, "Neutron Star Matter," Nuclear Physics A175, 225 (1971).

(11) J.W. Negele and D. Vautherin, "Neutron Star Matter at Sub-nuclear Densities," Nuclear Physics A207, 298 (1973).

(12) H. Kozima, gClusters of Neutrons and Protons in Neutron Star Matter and in Solidsh J. Scientific Exploration (submitted).


2. Proposal to Establish an International Organization, e.g. the International Cold Fusion Society (ICFS)


   It is clear that cold fusion research is making progress but the media in which the results are presented is scarce. Therefore, in my opinion, it is desirable to have an organization as an information center for the cold fusion research community throughout the world to compliment existing journals open to cold fusion research.

The International Cold Fusion Society (ICFS) (a tentative name) is an internet-based organization and will be connected with researchers throughout the internet. ICFS will hold a Website (ICFS Website) and play the role of the hub to member websites.

 Roles of the ICFS Website are proposed to be:

1) Keeping records and supplying information of International Conferences (ICCFs) and other Conferences to members,

2) Posting papers presented at these Conferences and published in journals with a limited circulation,

3) Posting a list of membersf personal websites where personal papers can be posted.

The third activity will replace partly or supplement the present style publishing research results (Journals and Proceedings of Conferences). There is no referee system in this style of paper presentation and responsibility is wholly on the author. The date of posting should be understood as the date of presentation of a paper posted in memberfs websites.

To post a new paper in onefs website, the paper should be registered to be posted in the page for new works of the ICFS Website. Anyone can learn about it by searching through the ICFS Website.

This will be a new system of academic activity free from the present systems that are inconvenient for researchers in interdisciplinary fields.  Until the establishment of ICFS, all researchers are recommended to maintain their Websites as a part of their academic activity and their experience will be utilized in establishing a better ICFS Website.

A large part of my CFRL Website, especially the part gCold Fusion Communityh will be transferred into appropriate pages in the ICFS Website.

 I am sure that this is a new style of academic activity in this information-dominant world. The cold fusion community should have this type of association as soon as possible.

There are several examples of primitive forms in this direction.

gJCF (Japan CF-research Society) Websiteh has a link to memberfs websites:

The website of geconophysics forumh, also, shows an example with a little bit different purposes from that proposed above:


   I hope that as many people in our community participate discussions on this theme as possible through internet or at occasions to have meeting.


March 10, 2002


Hideo Kozima


3. Raison dfEtre of CFRL Website and News


Cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) is a very complicated phenomenon and is difficult to understand its meaning not saying its explanation. Such a recent example you can see in the next article. Here, I would like to explain raison dfetre of my CFRL website and this News if it is a tiny effort to clarify riddles of CFP.

3-1. Scientific Judgments

Fanatic critics dare deny CFP while genuine scientists like N.F. Ramsay and Peter Hodgson speak the truth frankly.

N.F. Ramsey, Nobel Prize in physics in 1989, wrote,

"---- As a result, it is difficult convincingly to resolve all cold fusion claims since, for example, any good experiment that fails to find cold fusion can be discounted as merely not working for unknown reasons. Likewise the failure of a theory to account for cold fusion can be discounted on the grounds that the correct explanation and theory has not been provided. Consequently, with the many contradictory existing claims it is not possible at this time to state categorically that all the claims for cold fusion have been convincingly either proved or disproved ----" (Cold Fusion Research, November 1989 – A Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board to the United States Department of Energy –, DOE/S--0073, DE90, 005611.)

P. Hodgson, former nuclear physics supreme at Oxford University, told, gWhile I think that cold fusion is certainly unlikely, Ifm not prepared to make statements that the whole thing is complete rubbish.h (Newsweek (Pacific edition), 10/15/2001, Vol. 138, Issue 16, p.51)


3-2 Historical episodes related with models.

Bohrfs Model of Hydrogen Atom.

It is said that a man criticized Bohrfs idea of stationary circular orbits saying gThis assumption is nonsensical because assumption of stationary electron orbit in a force field is in contradiction with electrodynamics.h

This is a typical reaction of a person with a unicellular brain, which often occurs even now.

There had also been lack of understanding about the frequency condition of emitted light from atoms even if A. Einstein instantaneously caught its essential meaning saying:

"Then the frequency of the light does not depend at all on the frequency of the electron. And this is an enormous achievement. The theory of Bohr must be then right."


3-3. CFRL Website and the TNCF model had a ruthless attacker (A.C. hereafter) who tried to eliminate them.

In an letter printed on official letterhead paper, A.C. wrote as follows:

gAs you may know, Kozima is a truebeliever (0)` in the phenomenon of so called ‑ cold fusion". He has developed a theory (1) which attempts to explain certain experimental data by assuming the existence of "trapped neutrons" in solids (2) . . . Kozima's theory is based on false premises because most of the "data" that he attempts to explain is almost certainly erroneous (3). . .  It is a nonsensical theory invented to explain certain incorrect measurements. . . ..h gIn my view, Professor Kozima should not be allowed to place his website on a university server (4).h

gI also believe that Kozima should not have been allowed to use university facilities to give a course on his theory (5).h (Bold faced, underlined and numbered at citation.)


The sentence (0) is the worst raving that has been used frequently by fanatic critics. It is my honor of having this raving and my name in his list of sincere cold fusion scientists who are out of A.C.fs reach:

gI am coming to the conclusion that I live in an entirely different world than any ecold fusion scientistf I have had any dealings with in the past 2 years. These people are: R. George, M. McKubre, T.A. Chubb, Yourself, B.F. Bush, R. Stringham, F.L. Tanzellah (mail from A.C. of Jan. 27). A.C. is simply outside the Medawar zone (cf. and cannot understand the value of exploring works.

(1) shows that A.C. does not understand the role of a model in trying to understand pioneering work. (2) (and blame for it in following sentence omitted here) is based on A.C.fs shallow understanding of a model. (hs 1 and 3-1 above will help A.C. if A.C. has a scientistfs brain to understand the role of a model in science.) (3) is based on A.C.fs bias that experimental data in CF are almost certainly erroneous. (4) and (5) are based on his ignorance and prejudice concerning science and academic freedom. Arrogance and lack of understanding only make A.C. attack others based on his ignorance and incomplete knowledge.

  gOne can look but can not see it if onefs mind is not there,

One can hear but not listen if onefs mind is not there.h (Old Buddhistfs saying.)

According to the biased logic of A.C., experimental data sets of recent work by Clarke et al. (FS&T, Vol.40, p.152 (2001)) are surely nonsensical and rubbish due to a mistake: gBecause failure of a pressure sensor in the expansion volume, 90.6 % of the electrode gas was pumped away after a 5-min equilibration time.h (C.f. a letter to the editor from T. Chubb, FS&T, Vol. 41, No. 2, p.151 (2002).)

I have had few visitors to my Website for a long time. Now, I recognize that my website and my model are attracting strong notice from a critic without experience in pioneering research work. Probably, A.C. could not have accepted the Bohr model and quantum theory of the atomic structure. A.C. also probably could not understand the existence of the Medawar zone, where we have to work with the trial-and-error method. Through these works, science has made its progress.

   Anyway, the fact of this attack shows that A.C. is a person outside a world with academic freedom and freedom of speech, which are inevitable in science and in modern society. Once upon a time, there were floods of words like gredsh, gJewsh, gblacksh, - - - used as terms to denounce others. A.C. uses gtruebelieverh (0) as if it is a person to look down upon. Is this a reality in the science world in 21 century? A.C.fs personality is not compatible to academic society in a democratic world.


4. Sonofusion was detected in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and be reported in Science March 8 issue.

Sonofusion (bubble fusion) caused by high pressure in a bubble in liquids is different from the so-called cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) that occurs without high-energy supply from outside and reasoning of which is not known yet. Sonofusion has been investigated theoretically for years and many papers were presented at past ICCFs. Following work by K. Fukushima is an example:

K. Fukushima, gSonofusion; Compressibility of Liquid and Stability of Spherical Cavity,h Proc. ICCF5 (Monte-Carlo, Monaco, 1995) p.523 (1995).

It is interesting, however, to know response of people who are ignorant about CFP. It is also useful to look into a baroque mirror sometimes to know how it reflects our faces.

4.1 The article in Science Website reporting the news of sonofusion.

Evidence for Nuclear Emissions during Acoustic Cavitation

R.P. Taleyarkhan et al. Science 295, 1868 (2002)

The report by R. P. Taleyarkhan et al. of observations of tritium decay and neutron emissions associated with the collapse of tiny bubbles in deuterated acetone -- and the possibility that those observations may have arisen from fusion reactions within the imploding bubbles -- has generated substantial attention. In the 8 March 2002 issue of Science, we present the research article by Taleyarkhan et al., as well as three associated items: a Perspective by F. D. Becchetti describing the research and its significance; a news article by Charles Seife on some of the controversy stoked by the paper; and an editorial by Science's Editor in Chief, Donald Kennedy, on why Science decided that "publication is the best option." (Science Website)

4.2 Bob Park reported about the sonofusion as cited below in his WN page of APS Website.

A report out of Oak Ridge of d-d fusion events in collapsing bubbles formed by cavitation in deuterated acetone, is scheduled for publication in the March 8 issue of Science magazine. Taleyarkan et al. observe 2.5 MeV neutron peaks, evidence of d-d fusion, correlated with sonoluminescence from collapsing bubbles. Pretty exciting stuff huh? It might be, if the experiment had not been repeated by two experienced nuclear physicists, D. Shapira and M.J. Saltmarsh, using the same apparatus, except for superior neutron detection equipment. They found no evidence for 2.5 MeV neutron emission correlated with sonoluminescence. Any neutron emission was many orders of magnitude too small to account for the tritium production reported by the first group. Although distinguished physicists, fearing a repeat of the cold fusion fiasco 13 years ago, [B. Park is still in his biased state not recognizing the truths of CFP] advised against publication, the editor has apparently chosen not only to publish the work, but to do so with unusual fanfare, involving even the cover of Science. . . .(WN March 1, 2002) (Bracket is at citation.)