CFRL English News No. 31 (2002. 1. 10)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Dr. Hideo Kozima
E-mail address; email@example.com
This is CFRL News (in English) No. 31 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University
In this issue, there are following items.
1) Lecture Note “Solid State-Nuclear Physics” (1)
2) On the Experiments with the “Arata Cell”
1. From Lecture Note “Solid State-Nuclear Physics” (1)
– Syllabus of the course
Solid State-Nuclear Physics, PH410/510, SB2 104, Tues 1:00 – 2:50,
By Visiting Professor, Dr. Hideo Kozima
Room 33, Science 1.
Office Hours; Tues., Thurs. 15:00 – 17:00
H. Kozima, Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon – Evolution of Solid State-Nuclear Physics and the Energy Crisis in 21st Century, Ohtake Shuppan KK., Tokyo, Japan, 1998.
On-line resources: Website, web.pdx.edu/~pdx00210
Homework; One page report on the assignment given each week (60%)
Midterm report and Final Exam (20% each)
Reports can be submitted to the mailbox of H. Kozima in Room 262, Science 2, or during the next class.
１. Preliminaries and Introduction to CFP
2. Experimental Facts 1 – General Features of CFP
3. Experimental Facts 2 – The Electrolytic Systems
4. Experimental Facts 3 – The High Pressure Gas and Glow Discharge Systems,
5. Experimental Facts 4 – Effects of Thermal Neutrons, The Relations between Products, Number of Events X; Nx
6. TNCF Model 1 − Structure of a Phenomenological Model with an Adjustable Parameter and Analysis of Experimental Data (1)
7. TNCF Model 2 – Analysis of Experimental Data (2) and Summary of Analyses
8. Neutrons in Solids 1 – Free Neutrons in Solids
9. Neutrons in Solids 2 – Neutrons in Lattice Nuclei
10. Physics of Cold Fusion Phenomenon
Winter 2002 Quarter Course “Solid State-Nuclear Physics” PH410-510 started on January 8, 2002.
Main contents of this course are the content of my book Discovery of Cold Fusion Phenomenon – Development of Solid State-Nuclear Physics and the Energy Crisis in the 21st Century and one developed after the publication of this book. There are many additions in the lecture; First, new materials are included in the Introduction to make it more understandable for students not familiar with physics, especially with quantum mechanics, solid state physics and nuclear physics. Second, new development of physics of neutrons in solids developed in these several years are included to make clear bases of Premises assumed in the TNCF model.
Following are main points given as essentials of cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) given in the first class.
2. On the Experiments using the “Arata Cell”
It was discovered in the early stages of CF research that a characteristic cathode composed of palladium black in a Pd cylinder used by Arata et al. [1 – 5] has shown large amount of excess heat, neutrons, and helium-4.
(1) Y. Arata and Y-C. Zhang, "Reproducible 'Cold' Fusion Reaction using a Complex Cathode," Fusion Technol. 22, 287 (1992).
(2) Y. Arata and Y-C. Zhang, " 'Cold Fusion' in a Complex Cathode," Proc. ICCF3 (Nagoya), p. 441 (1993).
(3) Y. Arata and Y-C. Zhang, "Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion ("Cold Fusion")," Proc. Japan Acad. 70B, 106 (1994); "A New Energy Caused by 'Spillover-Deuterium' ," ibid. 71B, 304 (1995).
(4) Y. Arata, "Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion ("Cold Fusion")," Proc. ICCF6 (Hokkaido), p. 129 (1996).
(5) Y. Arata and Y-C. Zhang, "Solid-State Plasma Fusion (‘Cold Fusion’)," J. High Temperature Society (Japan), 23, 1 (1997).
Recently, the cathode was used in experiments [6 – 8] performed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) to check the results obtained before.* In these experiments, it was shown that helium-4 was missing and tritium was detected instead.
(6) M.C.H. McKubre, F.L. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, V. Violante, “The Measurement of Helium Isotopes to Demonstrate Solid State Nuclear Processes,” Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 46-1, Part II, 945 (2001).
(7) W.B. Clarke, “Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result,” Fusion Science and Technology, 40, 147 (2001).
(8) W.B. Clarke, B.M. Oliver, M.C.H. McKubre, F.L. Tanzella, and P. Tripodi, “Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production,” Fusion Science and Technology, 40, 152 (2001).
(*) This sentence is incorrect to explain the contents of the papers[6 – 8]. Correct explanation is given in the next issue of this News (CFRL News No. 32). (Note added after publication.)
In regard to the paper presented at the APS Meeting , I have suggested a possible mechanism of producing helium-4 by successive n-d and t-d reactions (CFRL News No. 25, Item 2, and also “Discovery” 6.2f and 11.8d). In the first step, tritium is produced, and in the second, the tritium can work to produce helium-4 with a small probability.
It seems that there is controversy on the reliability of experiments  which have shown the absence of helium-4. The discussion about this problem reminds me of the objection raised by critiques against reality of cold fusion phenomenon (CFP).
In the beginning of CF research around 1989, critiques against this phenomenon cited the irreproducibility of events in CFP and inconsistency in the amounts of products to deny its reality. Later on, observation of CFP in protium systems in addition to deuterium systems induced controversy about the reality of the former systems even in the CF community. Now, however, the majority of researchers are accepting CFP in both systems.
I would like to say that CFP is characterized by a variety of events or products in two senses; The branching ratio of an event under a definite macroscopic condition is determined by microscopic conditions of the system and 1) the amount of product of an event distributes from null to a maximum determined by the microscopic conditions and therefore seems as if it is determined by a stochastic process, and 2) whether one event occurs or not is determined by the branching ratio of the events determined by microscopic conditions.
Accepting this point of view, tritium producing and helium-4 producing Arata cells can be real systems with the same macroscopic but different microscopic structures if the macroscopic conditions of the two experiments are the same.
More details of analysis of data sets obtained using the Arata cell will be given elsewhere.