CFRL English News No. 30 (2001. 12. 10)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Dr. Hideo Kozima
E-mail address; firstname.lastname@example.org
This is CFRL News (in English) No. 30 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University
In this issue, there are following items:
1) First Observation of the Nuclear Reaction in Surface Layers and Nuclear Transmutation in CFP
2) ICCF9 Website Innovated
1. First Observation of the Nuclear Reaction in Surface Layers and Nuclear Transmutation in CFP
(1-1) The cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), i.e. more precisely expressed gnuclear reactions and accompanying events occurring in solids with high densities of hydrogen isotopes in ambient radiation,h has been investigated more than 12 years and contains many data from which we have to squeeze out physics of nuclear reactions in solids.
The following list is a part of experimental data sets published by Dr. J. Dash et al. in Portland State University in these about ten years on the CFP.
(1) J. Dash, P.S. Keefe, E. Nicholas and D.S. Silver, "Comparison of Light and Heavy Water Electrolysis with Palladium Cathodes" Proceedings of AESF 80th Annual Conference (Orlando, Florida, June 1993) p. 755 (1993).
(2) D.S. Silver, J. Dash and P.S. Keefe, "Surface Topography of a Palladium Cathode after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Fusion Technology 24, 423 (1993).
(3) J. Dash, G. Noble and D. Diman, "Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes after Electrolysis in Acidific Light and Heavy Water", Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Cold Fusion 2, 25-1 (1993).
(4) J. Dash, G. Noble and D. Diman, "Changes in Surface Topography and Microcomposition of a Palladium Cathode caused by Electrolysis in Acidific Light Water", Cold Fusion Source Book (Proceedings of International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advance Energy Sources, Minsk, Belarus) p. 172 (1994).
(5) S. Miguet and J. Dash, "Microanalysis of Palladium after Electrolysis in Heavy Water", Proceedings of 1st Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, College Station, Texas, p. 23 (1995).
(6) G. Noble, J. Dash, M. Breiling and L. McNasser, "Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Palladium and Sulfate Composite", Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion p. 136 (1995).
(7) R. Kopecek and J. Dash, "Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes", Proceedings of 2nd Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference, College Station, Texas, p. 46 (1996).
(8) J. Dash, "Chemical Changes and Excess Heat caused by Electrolysis with H2SO4-D2O Electrolyte", Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion 2, 477 (1996).
(9) M.K. Klopfenstein and J. Dash, "Thermal Imaging during Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Ti Cathode", Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Cold Fusion p. 98 (1998).
(10) J. Warner and J. Dash, "Heat Production during the Electrolysis of D2O with Titanium Cathodes", Conference Proceedings 70 (Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Lerici, Italy), 161 (2000).
(11) G. Goddard, J. Dash and S. Frantz, "Characterization of Uranium Codeposited with Hydrogen on Nickel Cathodes", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 83, 376 (2000).
(1-2) Looking into this list and reading these papers, we notice that their experiments have been done with electrolyte H2SO4 in D2O, cathodes of Pd, Ti and Ni, and anodes of Pt. This shows that the CFP revealed in these data sets have occurred in metal/D+H systems.
Remarkable points in these works are following facts; the earliest papers  and  contain experimental data sets of excess heat generation and topography of rimmed craters on the surface of cathodes. The following papers  and  published in 1993 and 1994 contain data sets of the detection of Ag and Au, and Cl and Ag in the craters or pits appeared on the surface, respectively. It is emphasized that these experimental data sets are, as far as I know, the first detections of the surface topography change showing formation of super-heated droplets of cathode materials exploding to create craters, pits and other fine structures. They are also one of the earliest observations of the nuclear transmutation showing occurrence of nuclear reactions. These features of the data have been confirmed by many succeeding data sets obtained by researchers over the world in these almost ten years.
Those data sets as a whole have recently been analyzed using the TNCF model and are interpreted consistently with appropriate values of the single parameter nn assumed in the model; .nn = 1012 – 1013 cm-3. In the analysis, it has become clear again that H and D participate together in the events of CFP, generation of excess heat and transmuted nuclei, and shaping pits or craters by explosion of droplets of melts in the surface layer. From the TNCF model point of view, heat production and nuclear transmutation are induced by the same mechanism of nuclear reactions mediated by neutrons.
We remind explanations by the TNCF model of the neutron energy spectra obtained by Bressani et al. () and also occurrence of CFP in hydrogen systems, e.g. data sets by Focardi et al. ([14,15]) and Bockris and Minevski (). The group in Italy including Focardi presented their data sets containing neutron emission in the ICCF8  by the title gNi-H systemsh. These data sets were supplemented recently by new data sets of neutron measurements in Pd/D+H system . Now, it is becoming further clearer that CFP is not primarily related with d-d fusion reactions in solids but related with reactions occurring in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides by some catalytic effects of unknown agent(s), which was assumed as the trapped neutrons in the TNCF model.
I have investigated the nature of neutrons in solids to explore possible participation of neutrons in CFP. These works will be published soon.
The controversial points of gammaless reactions of the types, n + p = d + Q1, n + d = t + Q2, are going to be solved by neutron drop formation  and its reaction with excited fundamental particles to give other channels for their decay than the gamma emission. In free space, these energies, Q1 and Q2, have to be carried away as gamma photons. In the situation where the reaction products interact strongly with other particles, however, there can be competitive decay channels and the energies are not necessarily carried away by photons and dissipated in the solids to give heat to the system.
(12) H. Kozima, gNuclear Transmutation in Cold Fusionh Cold Fusion 23, 54 (1997).
(13) H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Fujii, K. Arai, H. Kudoh and K. Kaki, gAnalysis of Energy Spectrum of Neutrons in Cold-Fusion Experiments by the TNCF Modelh Il Nuovo Cimento 112A, 1431 (1999).
(14) H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Nomura and K. Hiroe, "Analysis of Nickel-Hydrogen Isotope System on TNCF Model", Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion 2, 655 (1996). And Cold Fusion 20, 21 (1996).
(15) M. Ohta, M. Nomura, K. Hiroe and H. Kozima, "On the Cold Fusion Phenomenon in a Ni-H System (2)", Cold Fusion 20, 25 (1996).
(16) H. Kozima and K. Arai, gLocalized Nuclear Transmutation in PdHx observed by Bockris and Minevski revealed a Characteristic of CF Phenomenonh Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 513 (2000).
(17) E.G. Campari, S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, E. Porcu, E. Tosti and S. Vernesi – gNi‑H systemsh Conference Proceedings 70 (Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion), 69 (2000).
(18) T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, T. Ohmori, A. Takahashi, H. Yamada and H. Numata, gNeutron Evolution from a Palladium Electrode by Alternate Absorption Treatment of Deuterium and Hydrogenh Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L989 (2001).
(19) H. Kozima, "Neutron Drop; Condensation of Neutrons in Metal Hydrides and Deuterides", Fusion Technol. 37, 253 (2000).
2. ICCF9 Website Innovated
December 30 is the time limit to send the abstracts of papers to be submitted to ICCF9 by e-mail. They are accepting pre-registration for the Conference, also. Please be prepared not to miss the chance to attend the Conference to get latest news in CF research and meet with the new China making drastic changes in these ten years.