CFRL English News No. 2‚V (2001. 8. 10)

Cold Fusion Research Laboratory   Dr. Hideo Kozima

                            E-mail address;




This is CFRL News (in English) No. 27 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University

In this issue, there are following items.

1) New Paper published in Fusion Science and Technology

2) T. Chubb, Report of DOE Public Meeting, Washington D.C. June 26, 2001

3) INE Symposium October 26-27, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Announcement

4) RCCNT-9 September 30 – October 7, 2001. Dagomys, Sochi, Russia


1 New Paper was published in New Journal FST.

H. Kozima, M. Ohta, M. Fujii, K. Arai and H. Kudoh, gPossible Explanation of 4He Production in a Pd/D2 System by the TNCF Modelh Fusion Science and Technology, 40, 86-90 (2001)


2. Public Meeting of DOE on June 26 at Washington DC. Report by Talbot Chubb


As was reported in an article by Robert Smith, Jr. in this News No.26 (3), a Public Meeting was held in Washington D.C. on June 26. Talbot Chubb have attended it to present his oral opinion (material I) on the Cold Fusion Phenomenon from his point of view and also sent a paper (material II, which will be posted in the Website version of the CFRL News) to explain his opinion more thoroughly. He cordially sent me a letter to explain the Meeting and his presentation. Following is the report edited by the present writer. From this letter, the Meeting seems to be a ceremony to listen opinions from voluntary people who are eager or obliged to present their opinions on the policy of DOE.---Hideo Kozima


The June 26 Meeting at the Washington Hilton on Connecticut Ave. was the 7th of seven Public Meetings (Atlanta, Chicago, Boston, Seattle, Denver, Philadelphia and Washington.) gIt was not like a scientific presentation meeting. Instead it was like a hearing.  It was in an auditorium.  In the front of the auditorium was a long dais behind which sat up to 5 officials of DOE, maybe all from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).  Facing these officials was a podium from which presenters made their 5-minute prepared statements.  On the right side of the dais were 2 people, one of which was a court stenographer.  There were 2 persons also on the left side, but I don't know their function.  I guess it was like a court.  The DOE officials changed during the course of the day.  They were always very attentive and courteous.h

  gThe presentations began at 9:00, with the first hour of presentations by public officials rather than the general public. --------- Many of the speakers seem to have had past contact with DOE.  Many of them talked about programs that had been jointly funded by DOE and industry.  A considerable number of speakers were from industry associations.  There were also talks from social advocate groups like Greenpeace and the Sierra Club.

 The statements covered a wide range of activity, such as, energy efficient lighting, wind power, photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, hydrogen and methane fueled vehicles, fuel cells, insulation, thermally efficient window glass, support of inventions, Indian reservations with energy programs, etc. 

Most of the statements were supportive of DOE's renewables program.  The social advocates were largely critical of the Bush emphasis on energy supply rather than conservation.  Most speakers appeared on schedule, gave their statements, and left, presumably to return to their regular jobs.h

  gCold fusion was mentioned only once, other than by me, in the about 6 hours I was there.h 

   gIn addition to the verbal statements made, the DOE EERE Office accepted written statements limited to 4 pages.  I have e-mailed a statement to DOE, which is appended to this letter.h

   gWhat are the prospects.  I don't think the Public Meetings will have much impact.  Maybe all the material will be included in some DOE document.  If so, it might be something that could be referenced.  It seems unlikely that might brief statement will have an impact. However, there was total quiet while I spoke.  One scatters the seed, maybe somewhere a tree will grow.  I am glad that Scott talked me into attending the meeting.h

Talbot Chubb


I. Oral Presentation (given at the Meeting)

gIt is my view that DOE's Hydrogen Program has missed an important opportunity for developing new national energy supply.  It has failed to properly consider the large amount of nuclear energy available in mass-2 hydrogen.  In 1989 Professors Fleischmann and Pons presented evidence that this nuclear energy could be tapped using chemical techniques.  When tapped in this way, the energy is made available without the dangerous radiation accompanying normal nuclear power generation.

Since 1989 a struggling cold fusion community has continued to do research.  It has confirmed the original Fleischmann and Pons claims, developed methods that more reliably liberate the nuclear heat, and have quantitatively identified the nuclear reaction product.  The nuclear reaction product is helium gas, which is already present in air at about 5 parts per million concentration.  The researchers have also identified 2 rare side products that are unique signatures of a nuclear process.  In another study they have shown that the nuclear heat can be produced at elevated temperature in a controllable manner.

DOE's future Hydrogen Program should include work on this chemically induced nuclear energy.  Mass-2 hydrogen is called deuterium.  DOE should start a new program by first requesting the National Academy of Sciences to evaluate the recent results on radiationless deuterium fusion.(*)  I have sent DOE a list with key references.  DOE should then sponsor continuing work in this area.

Vice President Cheney's National Energy Policy Report states that U.S. conventional production of natural gas is projected to begin declining as early as 2015.  The goal of the DOE program should be to develop the technology that makes it practical for radiationless deuterium fusion heat to start replacing natural gas in residential heating before this decline in natural gas production begins. 


Talbot Chubb

Fellow, American Physical Society

Presentation to DOE on 26 June 2001h


(*) Mechanisms to explain simultaneous generation of 4He and the excess heat Q.

   As was explained in an article 2. of this News No.25, the number of 4He and the amount of Q do not determine the mechanism of their generation:

     d + d ¨ 4He + Q1                                             (1)

     n + d ¨ t (7.0 keV) +Qf                                    (2)

     t + d ¨ 4He + n + Qh                                        (3)

where Q1 = 23.82 MeV (lattice), Qf = 6.25 MeV (ƒΑ), Qh = 17.6 MeV.

Adding Eqs.(2) and (3) together, we obtain a following relation with Q2 = Qf +ƒΕQh = 6.26 + 17.6ƒΕ= 23.8 MeV (for ƒΕ=1);

     d +ƒΕd + (n +ƒΕt) ¨ƒΕ4He + Q2 + (ƒΕn + t).                  (4)

Eliminating common terms on the both sides, Eq.(4) forƒΕ=1 is substantially equivalent to the Eq.(1)

Thus, the relation of the amount of 4He and the excess energy does not determine which mechanism (a) the direct d-d fusion (1) or (b) the trapped neutron catalyzed fusion (TNCF) mechanism (2) and (3) is working in the system.

There is a common difficulty for (a) and (b); why Q1 or Q2 is observed as the thermal energy of the system but not as gamma rays (and other energetic particles). Other difficulties are specific for each mechanism; (a) probability of the reaction (1) and (b) rates of the reactions (2) and (3), i.e. ƒΕ= 1.

We, therefore, should be careful to assume specific mechanism as a cause of the cold fusion phenomenon. (Note by H.K.)


II. Written Presentation (sent by e-mail)


gThese comments are directed at DOE's "Hydrogen Program", and, in particular, towards any portion of the research and development effort directed towards augmenting national energy supply.

   It is important that the future research and development portion of the Hydrogen Program include study of systems, which explore heat production by chemically-induced nuclear fusion of deuterium atoms.(*)  This type of heat generation was reported by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989, and subsequently confirmed in key experiments during the 1989 to 2000 period.  The nuclear reaction product has been shown to be helium-4, which is totally benign and present in room air at a concentration of ~5 ppm.  The reaction energy is ~ 24 MeV per He atom, (~ 2.3 million MJ/mol of reaction product). The fuel resource base is inexhaustible on the human time scale. The future energy cost is likely to be less than the cost of energy produced by burning natural gas. Although the reaction is a nuclear reaction, no radiation has been detected accompanying heat generation.

   DOE in its current and past programs has failed to correctly evaluate the potential of radiationless deuterium fusion to contribute to the future national energy supply.

   A list of experiments and references that clearly demonstrate the reality of chemically induced deuterium fusion with the creation of helium-4 is provided at the end of these comments.

   Six steps are recommended in order to accelerate research in chemically induced radiationless deuterium fusion(*) (deuterium-based cold fusion):

1) Most important.  Get the National Academy of Science to review the key experimental studies on radiationless deuterium fusion that are listed in these comments.

2) Add to the current SRI research effort on radiationless deuterium fusion.  The McKubre and Tanzella program at SRI has been very successful.  It is the only US government supported program.

3) Reconstitute the Liaw and Liebert U. Hawaii molten salt electrolysis cold fusion program that was active in 1990. (Liaw and Liebert used different technology than that used by the SRI team)

4) Support exploratory radiationless deuterium fusion experiments based on surface-gas interface interactions, deuterium surface diffusion, and energized atom/ion metal surface excitations.

5) Support theory studies in the area of hydrogen-in-metals, coherent quantum-delocalized hydrogen systems, and Bose-Einstein-condensate atom systems, so as to better understand the many-body physics responsible for radiationless nuclear reaction.

6) Support one of more additional independent groups studying the radiationless deuterium process using methods similar to or paralleling those used in the SRI and/or the U. Hawaii programs.

List of Experiments Demonstrating d-d Cold Fusion in Metal

Since the initial announcement of the Fleischmann-Pons effect[1] there has been substantial laboratory progress in establishing the reality of excess heat produced by radiationless d-d nuclear reaction(*) in the deuterium-palladium system.  Selected experimental achievements are listed below.

1. Increasingly clear observations of excess heat in heavy water electrolysis experiments using palladium cathodes.  Early work is well summarized in Charles Beaudette's new book [2],  "Excess Heat & Why Cold Fusion Research Has Prevailed", (Oak Press, LLC, South Bristol , Maine, USA, 2000).  (1989-1991)

2. Fleischmann and Pons discovery of hours-long heat production in Pd cathodes after electrolysis turn-off [3].  This phenomenon is called "heat after death".  (1993)

3. Mass spectrometer observations of helium-4 in the electrolysis off-gas in experiments by Miles [4], B. Bush, McKubre, and Tanzella [5].  Results were presented by McKubre at the Western Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Ontario, California in October 1999, and also at the ICCF8 Meeting in Lerici, Italy in May 2000.  Observed helium was quantitatively measured and shown to have been produced at rate of 1 helium atom per 24 MeV of released heat.(1993, 1999)

4. Arata and Zhang development of the DS-cathode [6], which has produced watts of excess heat 10 times in a row when used with the Arata and Zhang protocol [7]. (1994)

5. Successful transfer of the Arata and Zhang DS-cathode technology developed at Osaka University to the McKubre laboratory at SRI [5] . (1999) 6.  Observation of heat and helium-4 generated in D2-loaded 0.5% Pd-on-carbon catalyst, observed by Case [8] and verified by McKubre et al. [5] (1998, 1999)

7. Observation of by-product helium-3 by Arata and Zhang [9] and with great clarity by Clarke and McKubre et al. during study of materials from previously run DS cathodes.  Helium-3 was repeatedly observed at a helium-3/helium-4 ratio greater than 10000 times ambient value [10].  (1997, 2000)

8. Observation of tritium in gas from a post-run DS-cathode, as measured by the build-up of helium-3 in stored chemically purified hydrogen samples by Clarke, Oliver, and McKubre et al. [10] (2000)


Laboratory potential for Major Power Production

9.  Clear observation by Liaw et al. [11] for 25 W of excess heat at greater

than 460 C during anodic deposition of D- ions onto a Pd anode from a molten

salt electrolyte.  Excess power exceeded electrolysis input power by factor

of 15; power density was 627 W/cc Pd; duration of high power was 1 day, of

elevated power was 4 days.  Power controlled by current density.  Single

successful anode.(1990)



[1] M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, "Electrochemical Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium", J. Electroanal. Chem., 261, 301 (1989). Hawkins, M. was added to the list of authors.

[2] C. G. Baudette, Excess Heat & Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed (Oak Grove Press, South Bristol, ME, USA, 2000).

[3] S. Pons and M. Fleischmann, "Heat After Death", Trans. Fusion Technol. 26,. 87 (1994).

[4] M. H. Miles and B. F. Bush, "Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium", Trans. Fusion Technol., 26, 156 (1994).

[5] M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi and P. Hagelstein, "The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems.: Evidence for 4He and 3H Production", Proc. ICCF8, ed. by F. Scaramuzzi, p. 3 (2001). M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, and P. Tripodi, Presentation made at the Western Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, October 1999.

[6] Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion ('Cold-Fusion'"), Proc. Japan Acad. , 71B, 304 (1995).

[7] Y. Arata and  Y.-C. Zhang, "A New Energy caused by 'Spillover-Deuterium'", Proc. Japan Acad. 70B, 106 (1994); Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang, "Solid State Plasma Fusion ('Cold Fusion')", J. High Temperature Soc. Japan. 23 (Special Vol.), 1 (1998).

[8] L. C. Case, "Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4", Proc. ICCF-7, p. 48 (1998).

[9] Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang,  "Helium (4He, 3He) within Deuterated Pd-Black", Proc. Japan Acad.73B, 1 (1997).

[10] M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi and P. Hagelstein, Presentation made at the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion, May 2000.  W. B. Clarke, B.M. Oliver, M.C.H. McKubre, F.L. Tanzella, and P. Tripodi, "Search for 3He and 4He in Palladium-Black from Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes, II:  Evidence for Tritium Production, Fusion Technol., (2001). " (in Press)  Also see [5]. 

[11] B.Y. Liaw, P-L. Tao, P. Turner, P. and B.E. Liebert, "Elevated-Temperature Excess Heat Production in a Pd-D System", J. Electroanal. Chem., 319, 161 (1991).


3. INE Symposium October 26-27, 2001, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Following is a letter from INE Symposium organizer about the above Symposium.


Dear new-energy expert,

We are pleased to invite you to present a paper at the 2001 New Energy Symposium which will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah on October 26-27, 2001.  Speakers will not be required to pay for attendance at the conference.

The major topics to be presented will, of course, involve the description of new-energy devices, some of which are in the process of being commercialized.

At least two of the new-energy devices, which are in process of being developed to a commercial stage, obtain their excess energy from tapping zero-point energy or the energy of the aether. Therefore, we are pleased to ask for papers that more fully describe the aether.  A separate part of our journal will be devoted to papers on the aether.

You may want to read and cite as a reference the following paper:

Colin J. Campbell and Jean H. Laherr Sre, "The End of Cheap Oil," Scientific American, March 1998. 

This paper clearly shows that oil production peaked in the U.S. in 1970 and production has been reducing each year since.  The paper shows that world oil production is expected to peak about 2010.  This factor will cause a serious rise in the cost of energy unless some of the new-energy devices are commercialized during this decade.

Please send us an abstract about the paper that you desire to present at this important conference.  We would like to have abstracts received in our office before the end of August, 2001.

Your paper will be published in the Proceedings of the 2001 New Energy Symposium by the Journal of New Energy.  THEREFORE, PLEASE PLAN ON PROVIDING A COPY OF YOUR PAPER AT THE TIME OF THE CONFERENCE.

*For more information about the Meeting, please contact Hal Fox by E-mail address <>.



4. The 9th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation (RCCNT-9)

Following is a letter from RCCNT9 organizer about the above Conference


Dear Colleges,

The 9th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation (RCCNT-9) is to be held during September 30 – October 7, 2001.  The place of the Conference is in Dagomys near the city of Sochi that is the best recreation and holiday place on the Black See shore of Russia.

The program of the Conference includes the following subjects:


The organizing Committee of the Conference is pleased to invite you to attend the Conference.  The terms of your participation are as follows:

The full cost is $900, which will include the registration fee, hotel reservation and living, three daily buffet meals, conference proceedings, transportation from the Sochi airport and back, social dinner and special excursion or entertainment.

The languages of the Conference are Russian and English.

The total cost can be reduced down to $800 if transferred before August 10 to the account of the Organizing Committee shown below:

Intermediary: Sabrrumm 100 Saving Bank of the Russian Federation Moscow Bank;

Account with institution: 891200011 at Izmailovskoye Branch 2695/0437;

Account holder: Yuri Nikolaevich Bazhutov;

Personal account: 42304.840.3.3834.0600137

The correspondence banks of the Moscow Saving Bank of Russian Federation in your country you will find attached.

If you make a decision to take part in the Conference please let us know before July 20 about the title and abstract of your report.


Contact telephone: (7)(095) 196-7117 (ask Mr. Igor Goryachev)

Fax: (7)(095) 196-6108


Address: 123182, Moscow, Russia, 1 Kurchatov Sq., I Goryachev

               105077, p/o box 169, Yu. Bazhutov


Yu. Bazhutov, Chairman of the Organizing Committee

I. Goryachev, Scientific secretary