CFRL English News No. 26 (2001. 7. 10)

Cold Fusion Research Laboratory   Dr. Hideo Kozima

                            E-mail address;




   This is CFRL News (in English) No. 26 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University

In this issue, there are following items.

1) gPossible Explanation of 4He Production in a Pd/D2 System by the TNCF

Modelh will be published in Fusion Science and Technology,

2) On the gNi-H Systemh by E.G. Campari et al. Proc. ICCF8  p.69 (2001),

3) On the Cold Fusion Research by Robert E. Smith

4) JCF3 Announcement


1) gPossible Explanation of 4He Production in a Pd/D2 System by the TNCF Modelh Fusion Science and Technology (July 2001)

The journal Fusion Technology will be published by a new title Fusion Science and Technology from American Nuclear Society under the new Editor already announced in FT Vol.38, No.3 (2000). There is a delay in publication of scheduled papers including our paper listed above. We hope the editorial principle accepting new fields of cold fusion phenomenon in its repertoire will not be altered under the new Editorial Board.


2) E.G. Campari, S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, E. Porcu, E. Tosti and S. Veronesi, gNi-H Systemh Proc. ICCF8, p. 69 (2001)

@Abstract of this paper was given in this CFRL News No.16 (2000. 9. 10)  (4)-1.

gThe most important experimental results obtained in the last years on the Ni-H system will be presented. In particular, we will report on 1) hydrogen absorption at low pressure (< 1 bar) and high temperature (500 - 700 K) in Ni, 2) thermal power production up to 70 W for long period (up to 10 months), 3) control capability on the power production, 4) experimental evidence of neutron and gamma rays emission, and 5) detection of several chemical elements different from Ni and H on the specimen surface.h

   If we can assume the same sample size as before (5mmƒΣX 90mm), then the S/V ratio is 8.2 and the output power of 70 W corresponds to a density of 40W/cm^{3} which is ranked at a high level in CF experiments. Focardi et al. observed also neutrons, which are, compared the data by Bressani et al. of the neutron energy spectra in Pd-D systems (cf. gDiscoveryh 6.2c). It is desirable to have an energy spectrum of the neutron observed in Ni-H system, which makes identification of the nuclear reactions in the system generating Q and neutron. We can expect their cooperation with the group in Milano University. It is also true about the gamma ray spectrum, which makes possible to compare the experimental results with our theory.

   The data by S. Focardi et al. published until now are listed as follows;

S. Focardi, R. Habel and F. Piantelli, gAnomalous Heat Production in Hi-H Systemsh Il Nuovo Cimento 107A, 163 (1994). iIj

S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano. F. Piantelli and S. Veronesi, gLarge Excess Heat Production in Ni-H Systemsh Il Nuovo Cimento 111A, 1233 (1998). iIIj

A. Battaglia, L. Daddi, S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, P.G. Sona and S. Veronesi, gNeutron Emission in Ni-H Systemsh Il Nuovo Cimento 112A, 921 (1999) iIIIj

E.G. Campari et al., gNi-H Systemsh Proc. ICCF8 p. 69 (2001). (IV)


   We have analyzed the data in (I) by the TNCF model and the result was given in my book Discovery 11.10b. The reactions used in the analysis were

n + p = d (1.33 keV) + gamma (2.22 MeV),            (1)

d (1.33 keV) + p = 3He + gamma (5.49 MeV).          (2)

In the paper (I), it was reported that no radiation was detected. In papers (III) and (IV), however, a small amount of neutron and gamma had been observes which are not expected in the above reactions (1) and (2). This point should be discussed in the TNCF model taking local coherence and neutron drop formation in surface layers into consideration. We can summarize data given in the above papers as follows:

 (I). The maximum filling occurred when the Ni rod 5mmƒΣ~90mm was heated above 173Ž and the gas pressure was below 1 atm (H2 of 570 mb was used). After several loading steps, the gas absorption was accompanied by a strong rise of the rod temperature standing high for such a long time as several tens days

 (II). With a new set-up, the external temperature increase, together with the internal one, have been utilized to characterize the excited state of the Ni sample that produced the excess heat for a long period accompanying neutrons and gamma rays. Two cells, A and B, produced excess heat of 38 and 22W for 278 and 319 days, respectively, total energy amounting to 900 and 600 MJ, respectively.

 (III) In the cell A used in the above experiment in (II), neutron emission was observed accompanied with the excess heat. A peak value of the neutron count was 6~103/s. Reducing the number of neutrons to the excess heat assuming 1 MeV energy liberation in a nuclear reaction, the one neutron observed in the experiment corresponds to 1011 reactions.

   (IV) The experiments done from 1993 were repeated under conditions of H2 gas pressure 200-1000mb and sample temperatures 700-800Ž. In addition to the data of the excess heat, neutron and gamma emission, new elements were observed in localized spots on the Ni sample surface: they include lighter elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ca and so on than Ni (except Sc, Ti, V, Co) and Cu and Zn. In each spot, only some of these were detected, but their EDX signal was in some cases even stronger than that of Ni. The proportion of the elements changes from place to place.


   These experimental data are very interesting showing several characteristics of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP).

   First of all, it should be emphasized as were done several times until now that CFP occurs not only in D systems but also in H systems as is shown in these experiments by the excess heat, neutron and gamma emission and also by the nuclear transmutation. The TNCF model has emphasized that characteristics of CFP are best understood by giving up to consider d + d  reaction as its main cause.

   Next, the reactions observed in these systems shows a characteristic that the reaction is induced by an excitation process and then the excited state is maintained for a long period. This reminds us the mechanism depicted in the TNCF model that the trigger reaction by trapped neutrons induces a reaction and then breeding reactions by particles generated in the trigger reactions maintain the reactions. Similar characteristic has been observed also in other experiments in different materials and experimental conditions.

The numbers of neutrons and gammas 1011 less than reactions producing the excess heat should be explained by characteristics of sample surfaces such local coherence and neutron drop formation in the surface layer as proposed in the TNCF model. Localization of the nuclear transmutation products should be related with these characteristics.


3) On the Cold Fusion Research(*)

 by  Robert E. Smith, Jr., President of Oakton International Corporation (OIC), 2714 Clarkes Landing Drive, Oakton, VA 22124

(*) This article is originally sent to OED on the occasion of its Public Meetings on June 26 and published here by permission of the author.


In April, 1994, I was contacted by a person in the intelligence community and asked to provide a worldwide assessment of the new science of "COLD FUSION" that was originally announced by Pons and Fleischmann in Salt Lake City, UT in 1989. 

At first, I was very skeptical about this technology.  Most of my background was in fission nuclear reactors that utilized particle physics approaches and their nuclear engineering applications.  By reading many technical papers, attending several local cold fusion meetings, and participating in several international conferences on cold fusion, and examining DATA in several international laboratories (including 7 trips to Russia and other countries) I became convinced that several scientists and engineers (including Pons and Fleischmann) had in fact produced significant excess heat (more power out than input power) without associated radioactivity (no neutrons, no gammas, no alphas, no betas etc. seen on standard detectors).

 I also realized that there were several types of cold fusion reactions and processes, most of which can be explained with solid state physics and quantum mechanics, and NOT by former standard particle physics and engineering approaches (cross sections for this and that) taught in most nuclear engineering schools.

 It is somewhat like when computers were being built with vacuum tubes in large air-conditioned rooms, while solid state physicists and engineers were standing in the wings saying to themselves, we can put the capability of the vacuum tube computer in our wrist watch and give it many times the computing power of the large computer.

 I also observed that in order to provide high reliability excess power reactions that it requires very strict attention to detailed required cold fusion reactor conditions, configurations, and materials.  Early cold fusion experiments did not have good quality control of required parameters, thus duplication of experiments was difficult.  This duplication problem has been clearly solved.  Power levels of at least 10 KW per cubic centimeter of excess heat power have been observed.

Comments by the numbers in the announcement:

1.  The objectives of the current energy efficiency and renewable energy (EERE) research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) programs.

Comment.  I have had several meetings at DOE headquarters, DOE National Laboratories including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver, CO, and have determined that there is very little RDD&D on cold fusion research taking place in the United States of America (USA).  Hot fusion programs have consumed large sums of funding and they have not produced significant power levels with greater than a ratio of unity (more power out than input power), as have cold fusion researchers.  The research objectives of the EERE should definitely be reformed to include significant requirements and provisions for cold fusion RDD&D.

2.  Suggested potential objectives for future programs.

Comment.  EERE objectives for research in the new science of cold fusion

Should include, as a minimum, the following objectives:

 a.  Expand theoretical explanations of the various types of cold fusion reactions.

 b.  Expand experimentation of cold fusion processes using a predict (simulation) and verify approach.

 c.  Perform requirements analyses to document the justification and identification of users of the cold fusion RDD&D and resulting applications.

 d.  Perform economic, political, and social comparison analyses for existing energy sources (fossil, solar, wind, geothermal, etc.) versus cold fusion energy sources.

 e.  Perform non-proliferation of nuclear energy analyses to show the importance of peaceful uses of cold fusion nuclear hydrogen energy since the cold fusion reactions do not involve exponential neutron multiplication factors (k-effective).

 f.  Expand the use of cold nuclear fusion hydrogen energy that has no associated radioactivity or radioactive waste products.

 g.  Develop cold fusion processes to reduce radioactive wastes from fuel of fission nuclear reactors.

 h.  Develop commercial applications that utilize cold fusion reactors

such as electric vehicles, heating and air-conditioning equipment, different size electrical power plants, district heating and cooling, space and terrestrial cold fusion nuclear power and propulsion systems, and environmentally clean systems to reduce smog, global warming, and radioactive wastes.

3.  Implementation of current and future programs.

Comment.  If there are any current cold fusion programs in EERE RDD&D, they should be significantly expanded so that they are well known, well funded, and involve world wide participation of expert cold fusion scientists and engineers. New start programs/projects are essential and should be required to be submitted in the program, planning, and budgeting system process of the 10 DOE National Laboratories.  Mixed Government Corporations like the U.S. Enrichment Corporation should be considered to "fence funding, both public and private" for the specific purpose of developing cold fusion hydrogen energy sources and applications. Coordination and cooperation with the other U.S. Departments, Private Industry, and foreign collaborators should be encouraged.

4.  Whether these Federal programs are achieving intended objectives.

Comment.  It has been my personal observation that there have been few federal cold fusion programs that have even attempted to satisfy the objectives listed in comment 2 above.

 There have been two excellent cold fusion federal reports published by the U.S. Navy at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.  There have been reports of alternate sources of Tritium production at the DOE Los Alamos National Laboratory. 

There have been some small efforts sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.  There has been significant exploratory cold fusion research done at the SRI International laboratory in Menlo Park, California, the University of Illinois fusion studies laboratory, the University of New Mexico, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, the University of Texas, Texas A&M University, etc.,

 ALL of which were with sub-critical amounts of funding.  It is estimated that any expansion of the DOE EERE RDD&D, over a five year period, should have a minimum of $40 Million assigned to the effort and be coordinated and jointly funded by using organizations such as the Department of Defense, Department of State, Department of Commerce, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.  Efforts and funding by the International Proliferation and Prevention (IPP) Program and the United States Energy Coalition and the International Science and Technology Centers (ISTC) should be significantly expanded, especially for USA small business participation. 

It is one thing to fund the foreign collaborators and another to fund U.S. Industry small businesses.  Some large businesses have provided funding up to 1.6 times federal funding for IPP efforts, but funding for significant small business participation in the USA has not been solved. 

DOE National laboratories should be allocated "fenced funding" for small businesses contracts for cold fusion RDD&D such that the funds are not used for in-house personnel/research (Full Time Equivalents), just to keep laboratory people on staff and their gold watch programs funded.

When funding is identified and budgeted for USA small business contracts, the degree of participation of small USA businesses in worthwhile projects such as IPP, ISTC and other world wide efforts such as those sponsored by the U.N. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will be greatly improved.

We at OIC, are looking forward to participation with EERE once some or all of these suggested comments have been implemented.  We will provide non-proprietary information briefings on details of radiationless cold nuclear fusion at anytime, or place convenient for you and the EERE staff, to help justify the implementation of these suggested reforms.


Robert E. Smith, Jr.


Oakton International Corporation (OIC)

(703) 620-5886

(954) 941-9057

(703) 620-6247 Fax


4) JCF3 Announcement:

CALL FOR PAPERS: The 3rd Japan Meeting on Nuclear Reactions in Solid (JCF3)


Dear JCF members and CF-research colleagues:

    The research activity on nuclear-reactions-in-solid (cold fusion) grows steadily in Japan. Since the last meeting (JCF2) at Hokkaido University, we have been informally aware of new progresses on detection of excess heat, neutrons, He-4, X-rays and "transmuted" products, from several groups, and of innovative proposals on theoretical models and analyses. The International Conference ICCF9 is now scheduled on May 19-24, 2002, in Beijing China ( So the JCF3 meeting on October 25-26, 2001, at Yokohama National University, will provide us good occasion of summarizing and discussing Japanese (and including possibly some of over-sea activities) activities in the field to make further progress toward ICCF9.


Place of JCF3 Meeting: University Hall of Yokohama National University,  Tokiwadai 79-5, Hotogayaku, Yokohama, Japan

Date: October 25-26, 2001

Topics: nuclear products, excess heat, low energy nuclear reactions, fusion, fission, materials, experimental techniques, theories, CF politics, etc.

Presentation: oral presentation (English or Japanese) in 20-25 min per paper

Abstract dead-line: September 10, 2001 ( send via attached file in e-mail to ( or usual mail, to JCF-desk, Takahashi laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka, Japan

Abstract style: 1-2 pages, A4 format in free style, write in English Title, names (mark presenter), affiliation, keywords (4-5), main sentences, figures, tables, references

Registration: on Meeting site in the Morning of October 25, 2001

registration fee: 5,000 yen

banquet: 5,000 yen

Inquiry to the Local Organizing Committee: to

    Prof. Kenichiro Ota, Yokohama National University


    Tel: 81-45-339-4021

Inquiry to JCF office: to

    Akito Takahashi, Osaka University


    Tel: 81-6-6879-7890