CFRL English News No. 25 (2001. 6. 10)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Dr. Hideo Kozima
E-mail address; firstname.lastname@example.org
This is CFRL News (in English) No. 25 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University
In this issue, there are following items.
1) Rolison and W.E. OfGrady, gObservation of Elemental Anomalies at the Surface of Palladium after Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium and Hydrogenh Analytical Chemistry 63, 1696-1701 (1991)
2) McKubre et al. Proc. ICCF8 p.3 gThe Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems: Evidence for 4He and 3He Productionh
3) First Announcement for ICCF9 (Beijing, May 2002).
1. D.R. Rolison and W.E. OfGrady, gObservation of Elemental Anomalies at the Surface of Palladium after Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium and Hydrogenh Analytical Chemistry 63, 1696-1701 (1991)
As announced in the News No. 24, I will discuss about the above paper by Rolison and OfGrady.
In this paper, experiments with Pd foil cathodes and Pt anodes were used for electrolytic experiments with Li2SO4 in heavy and light waters. They observed foreign atoms in the surface layer of thickness about a few microns of Pd cathodes.
Impurities in the original Pd cathodes were Pt 200 ppm, Rh 50 ppm, Ag 100 ppm, Cu 50 ppm, Mn 10-15 ppm, Ni 200-300 ppm, Si 20-40 ppm. The amounts of foreign atoms observed were; in the case of Rh, the amount increased with electric charge electrolyzed until [105 C and then kept constant both in heavy and in light waters. In the case of Ag, similar tendency was observed.
The result can be explained by following causes:
1. Impurities in the cathode have diffused out onto the surface in the process of hydrogen isotope occlusion and precipitated in the surface layer.
2. Impurities in the anode have dissolved into the electrolyte and deposited on the surface of the cathode in the process of electrolysis.
3. Foreign atoms are generated in the surface layer by nuclear transmutations catalyzed by neutrons in the cathode in the surface layer.
Rolison et al. have explained their data by the mechanism (1) assuming about 25 % of impurity Rh in the cathode had precipitated on the surface. The mobility estimated by the amount of Rh atoms in the surface layer is consistent with values observed in other experiments, they say.
The second possibility of anode origin of the foreign atoms is denied by Rolison et al. because the high purity of Pt of 99.999%.
The third possibility is also denied by them because the Rh and Ag were observed both in heavy and light water experiments altogether contradicting with their presumption of d-d fusion reactions responsible to cold fusion phenomenon. In reality, 102Pd and 108Pd absorb a neutron to become 103Pd and 109Pd, and then they decays into 103Rh and 109Ag, respectively, by electron capture and beta decay.
This possibility, however, should be reconsidered as is also discussed in the next section. The discovery of the neutron in 1932 by Chadwick (cf. News No.24 Article 1) had shown importance of expectation in research works. In the case of the discovery of the neutron, right expectation guided Chadwick to find out the hidden clue. Wrong expectation, however, will guide us to erroneous direction. In the cold fusion phenomenon, almost all critiques have made the same mistake assuming the d-d fusion reaction for all events of CFP and denied reality of the phenomenon.
It is possible to explain the generation of Rh and Ag by the neutron catalyzed reactions as already pointed out by Rolison et al. Only the difficulty of the explanation is the amounts of Rh and Ag: we have to conclude that the amount of Ag should be much about 100 times that of Rh by the abundances of 102Pd and 108Pd, neutron absorption cross sections and decay times of the nuclei 103Pd and 109Pd. The adjustable parameter in the TNCF model is determined as
nn = 3.5 ~1013 cm|3,
consistent with values determined by other data (cf. Discovery Chapter 11)
It is not possible the amount of Ag decreases drastically as far as the electrolysis continues. Only a possibility is dissolve of Ag after the electrolysis into the solution, which is not consistent with explanation given in the original paper.
If the explanation (1) is right, we should be aware of large accumulation of small amount of impurity atoms in a cathode on the surface in experiments of nuclear transmutation.
Acknowledgement: The author would like to express his thanks to Prof. K. Ota of Yokohama National University for valuable discussions on the electrolysis
2. M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi and P. Hagelstein, gThe Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems: Evidence for 4He and 3He Productionh Conference Proceedings 70 (Proc. ICCF8) p.3, F. Scaramuzzi Ed., SIF, Bologna (2000)
M. McKubre et al. in SRI International have been working in various excellent experiments in cold fusion phenomenon (CFP). In this Conference, they presented standard experiments to confirm experiments done in these several years. Their experiments are divided into four categories.
1. Open cell electrolysis of D2O at Pd and Pd-alloy wire cathodes using an accurate integral boundary Seebeck calorimetry. (to replicate earlier observations of Miles et al.)
2. Loading of D2 and H2 into Pd on carbon supported catalyst using modest gas pressures (1-3 atm.) (to test the claim by Case to observe excess temperature and increasing 4He levels under similar conditions.)
3. Closed cell electrolytic loading of D into Pd wire cathodes in a rigorously metal-sealed apparatus using highly accurate mass flow calorimetry. (to replicate earlier results of excess heat measurement at SRI.)
4. Closed cell electrolytic loading of D (and H) into hollow Pd cathodes sealed to contain small dimension Pd-black powders. (to replicate published results by Arata and Zhang.)
They analyzed the experimental results assuming a following reaction formula:
d + d ¨ 4He + 23.82 MeV (lattice) (1)
Their experimental results and analyses of them are summarized as follows:
Exp. 1. 4He and an excess heat were observed. The amount of 4He was about 76 % of that expected from the amount of the excess heat if the Eq. (1) is correct.
Exp. 2. An excess heat and 4He were observed which increased exponentially with time. The excess heat per 4He atom was 31}13 MeV.
Exp. 3. In the experiment with Pd wire of 100mm~1mmΣand D2O, an excess heat of 82J and 4He were measured. Taking into account of 4He lost by sampling and others, the number of 4He atoms is 104}10 of the number of atoms quantitatively correlated with the observed heat via Eq. (1).
Exp. 4. The experiments confirmed the published data by Arata and Zhang in general. The maximum excess power observed was 9.9 }1.3 of the measured power input, with the average value being approximately half the maximum. Significant amounts of tritium and 3He from the decay of tritium were found inside the double structured volume of the cathode electrolyzed in heavy water.
It was already reported that Arata et al. observed a large amount of 4He that was analyzed using the TNCF model (Discovery 6.2f and 11.8d). I had anticipated production of tritium not detected at that time besides 4He. In these experiments, 4He was observed but not tritium. Experiment is difficult.
Meanwhile, I would like to point out another possibility of 4He production with quantitative correlation with the excess heat.
It was already pointed out the direct d-d fusion reaction can be accomplished with very small probability in solids (as fully discussed by Leggett and Baym, Ichimaru, and others as cited in TNCF News No.22). We have proposed reactions catalyzed by neutrons as follows:
n + d ¨ t (7.0 keV) + Α(6.25 MeV) (2)
t + d ¨ 4He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV) (3)
These reactions occur in a free space. If liberated energies in these reactions are dissipated into thermal energy of solids (as assumed in Eq. (1)), we can obtain following reaction (eliminating common terms in both sides):
d + d Λ 4He + 23.8 MeV (lattice) (4)
This is essentially the same equation as Eq. (1); while there the direct d-d reaction is assumed, here neutron catalyzed reactions are. Therefore, it is dangerous to conclude Eq. (1) from numerical relations between products of CFP; they show only numerical relations and not their production mechanisms.
As I have pointed out many times, phonons with wave lengths at least of `10|8cm can not screen the Coulomb repulsion at a distance of 10]13cm where the attractive nuclear force starts to work. It is necessary to invent some artifice to overcome this difficulty if we cohere to phonons to work in favor of CFP.
It should be pointed out about probabilities of reactions (2) and (3). Reaction (3) occurs less than reaction (2) and the amount of 4He expected from (3) does not correspond to the excess energy of 23.8 MeV per atom. Recent calculation, however, suggests similar probabilities of two reactions due to local coherent existence of neutrons in the surface region. It is possible to have drastically different behavior of lattice nuclei in solid materials with optimum conditions for CFP.
3. The First Announcement for ICCF9.
The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion will be held on May 19 – 25, 2002 in Beijing as announced in the First Announcement cited below.
Dear Colleagues and Friends,
I am glad to make the first announcement for ICCF-9. We have the Website and
e-mail address now for The Ninth International Conference on Cold Fusion.
and the e-mail address:
@Your early suggestions and comments would help us to make a better
arrangement for ICCF-9.
@We are looking forward to seeing your early reply (Pre-registration!).
Li, Xing Zhong
Prof. Li, Xing Zhong
Dept. of Physics, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084, CHINA
Tel.: 86-10-6278 4343
Fax: 86-10-6278 4343