CFRL English News No. 20 (January 10, 2001)

Cold Fusion Research Laboratory      Prof. Hideo Kozima.


   This is CFRL News (in English) No. 20 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima in Portland State University. The e-mail address in PSU is

In this issue, there are following items.

1)   On the Diffusion of Hydrogen Isotopes in Transition-Metal Hydrides.

2)   More Details on RCCNT8 held in Sochi, Russia.


1) On the Diffusion of Hydrogen Isotopes in Transition-Metal Hydrides (Deuterides)

   There are many factors we have to notice in the research of CFP (the cold fusion phenomenon). I would like to point out two points here.

 First, it is necessary to discriminate two approaches, phenomenological and microscopic, as clearly as possible. Second, in the microscopic approach, it is necessary to recognize CFP is not isolated phenomenon but is a part of physics closely related with other physics, especially with physics of matter. The first point is easily understood if we recollect the relation of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In this article, I refer to two papers on the properties of diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in transition metals.

1 J. Voelkl and G. Alefeld, “Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals” in Hydrogen in Metals Vol. I, p. 321, published in 1978.

2 J.A. Sussmann and U. Weissman, “Application of the Quantum Theory of Diffusion to H and D in NiobiumPhys. Stat. Sol. Vol. 53B, 419 (1972).

The paper (1) is a review article on the diffusion and contains following interesting sentences.

 “In contrast to the case of H in Pd and H in Ni, the measurements in iron show quite unsatisfactory scatter in spite of a large number of investigations. Only above 250 degree C the scatter is about one order of magnitude and decreases slightly with higher temperature. The absolute value of D for iron in this temperature region is higher than that for Pd.”

   There are four orders of magnitude scatter below 250 degree C. Causes of this scatter are contemplated and concluded that the principal one might be surface effects. It has been well known, for instance in the case of semiconductors, properties of compound materials sensitive to their structure had a poor reproducibility. To make the reproducibility higher, they concentrated their efforts to make composition as homogeneous as possible.

   In the case of CFP, however, the effect is a nuclear reaction having six orders of magnitude larger energy than the cause, atomic or molecular phenomena occurring with energies of orders of less than 100 meV. This means the effect is exaggerated very much to show reproducibility extravagantly poor. It is necessary to realize this characteristic clearly.

 In the paper (2), an ion band formed by excited states of protons (deuterons) in interstices are used to explain diffusion characteristics of H (D) in Nb with fair successes. This is an example of properties of matter not independent of CFP. Details of our contemplation on this point will be given in other places.


2) RCCNTCE8 (8-th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements) Dagamys, Sochi, October 4 - 11, 2000.

A brief outline of the Conference was given in No. 18 of this news. In this News, titles of papers closely related with CFP are recited. (Numbers of the papers show the order of presentation according to the brochure.)

1. L.G. Sapogin and A.P. Buslaev, “Is ‘Perpetuum Mobile’ possible in Quantum Physics?”

2. V.D. Dougar-JabonV.I. KariokaV.A. KondratovD.V. Roznikov, N.V. Samsonenko and V.D. Schepilov, “Measurement of Neutrons and Gamma-Emission from Palladium-Hydrogen and Palladium-Deuterium Systems at Hydrogen-Phase Rivet

3. V.D. DougarJabonV.I. Kaioka and N.V. Samsonenko, “A Search of Optimum Conditions, Stimulating Neutron Emission from Palladium-Deuterium System at Transformation of a Crystal Lattice

4. M.H. Miles, “Anomalous Heat and Helium Production in the Palladium-Boron System

5. A.G. Lipson and A.S. Roussetski, “Observation of High-energy Alpha-particle Emission in Processes of Hydrogen (Deuterium) Desorption

6. R. Notoya and A.G. Lipson, “Reaction Network of Cold Nuclear Transmutation on the Basis of Gamma-spectra Observation During Electrolysis in a System of K_{2}CO_{3} Light Water Solution/Pt Electrodes

7. A.B. Karabut, “X-ray Registration in Experiments with High-current Glow Discharge

8.   E. Conte, “Compressed Hydrogen Atoms: Like Neutron Particles Explaining CF and LENR Phenomenologies

10. Yu.N. Bazhutov, “Erzion Registration in the Bubble Chamber SCAT

11. D.S. Baranov, “Investigation of the Temperature and Radiation Effects at Koldamosov Cell

13. I.P. Chernov, Y.P. Cherdantzev, A.M. Lider and G.V. Garanin, “Excess Heat Release upon Hydrogen Isotopes Electrolytic Saturation into Metals

14. I.P. Chernov and N.N. Nikitenkov, “Investigation of the Mechanism of Isotopic Composition Change during Hydrogen Charge of Metals

15. V.I. Vysotski, A.A. Lornilova, I.I. Samoylenko and G.A. Zykov, “Experimental Observation and Study of Controlled Transmutation of Intermediate Mass Isotopes in Growing Biological Cultures

18. K.U. Urutskov and V.I. Liksonov,  Observation of Transformation of Chemical Elements during Electric Discharge

19. K, I. Kholodov, “Analysis of the Work ‘Observation of Transformation of Chemical Elements during Electric Discharge’ by Urutskov et al.

20. A.V. Nestorovitch, B.U. Rodionov and I.B. Savvatimova, “Tracks Formation at Cold Atomic Nuclei Transmutation

21. V.N. Nosov, “High-effective Acoustical Transducers for Realization of Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements

22. F. Frisone, “Theoretical Hypothesis on the Correlation between the Probability of Fusion on the Surface and within Microcracks of a Deuterium Loaded Crystalline Lattice at Room Temperature

25. I.V. Goryachev and O.A. Trykov, “Experiment on De-excitation of Ni Nuclei”

27. R.N. Kuzmin, P.O. Revokatov, B.N. Shbilkin, M.A. Zavialov, P.M. Tyurkanov and E.N. Evlanov, “Transmutation of Elements at High Voltage and High Current Density

29. V.A. Romodanov and A.K Pokrovsky, “Registration of the Excess Heat for Transfusion of Hydrogen through Membranes

30. V.A. Romodanov, Ya.B. Skuratnik and A.K. Pokrovsky, “Tritium Generation for Hydrogen Isotopes Interaction with Metals

36. J, Dash and J. Warnar, “Electrolysis of Acidified Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes

   There are several papers on Ball Lightening by R.N. Kuzmin et al.

   Attendants from abroad were J. Dash and F. Frisone.

Comments on several of these presentations will be given in future issues of this News.

   One of characteristics we feel in the style of Russian scientists may be their perseverance. In the list of titles given above, we recognize several works continued for several years some of them are:  . by Karabut, 13. by Chernov, 15. by Vysotski, 29. by Romodanov.

   In my student days, I have read many Russian books on Physics and noticed difference in the names of Effects called in Russia from those in Western Europe. Many discoveries had been already found in Russia, it has been said so, before they are discovered in Europe and presented to common.

   In the case of CFP, it is said similar effects had been observed in Russia before 1989.

It may be certain, I think, that there are some investigations in Russia similar to one discovered in Europe if we search through the country.

   The idea of Erzion proposed by Bazhutov (10.) belongs to this genre. If this baryon named as erzion is found as Bazhutov claims, it will induce a revolution in physics ranging from CFP to high-energy physics. The summary of the paper is shown below:

 “During look over ~10,000 stills from bubble chamber SCAT, it was registered ~20,000 tracks of cosmic rays penetrating particles. Based on these ~20,000 events momentum size spectrum for both positive and negative charged particles and so their charge ratio momentum dependence were constructed. In momentum size spectrum for negative charged particles the excess size spectrum was found in the region of momentum more than ~30 GeV/c (> 5 sigma). It was shown that their negative charge, the excess particles intensity (~10^{-5} cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}) and its level momentum dependence (~30 GeV/c) are in good accordance with Erzion model of new particles in cosmic rays.”

   A phenomenon like CFP, inexplicable from conventional points of view in physics, should be explained using an idea alien from common science. The larger the discrepancy between the idea and the common sense of science is, the larger its impacts on the science and technology are. It is true that CFP is not interesting if it is explained simple mechanism in the common physics. The Missing factor (MF) to explain CFP is better if it is alien from conventional physics.

   The story around CFP is that what is the missing factor for CFP. The so-called skeptics consider the missing factor is experimental errors or artifacts as written in journalistic articles and books, which we do not need to care about in the present stage of researches.

   In serious researches, there are several kinds of MF’s as classified in my book “Discovery”. There are six kinds of MF’s: 1. Acceleration model, 2. Heavy charged particle catalyzed model, 3. Many-body screening model, 4. New quantum mechanics, 5. Phonon effect theory, 6. Philosophical approach.

The erzion of Bazhutov belongs in the second genre. The magnetic monopole proposed by T. Sawada (explained in his essay published in this News (Japanese version) Nos. 12, 13 and 18 in detail) is also in the same genre.

   Another characteristic of Russian research of CFP is relative independence from commercialism related with the patent. As I have noticed in my writings, there are two barriers preventing sound development of CF research: 1. Mental (conceptual) barrier and 2. Patent barrier. I feel there is not much secrecy in the presentation by Russian.

   About the barrier, conceptual one, the barrier in Italy and in Russia is relatively low compared with other countries. In USA, however, we have an example of G.H. Miley who endeavored to treat CFP scientifically and succeeded to do so in his work as an Editor of a journal (FT) (cf. News No.19, Item 3). This may be an example of generosity in science and society of USA.

   It is very regrettable to hear that the journal Il Nuovo Cimento published by Italian Physical Society is united to European Physics Journals and disappeared. As is well known, the name of this journal means The New Trials and symbolizes essence of research works. This name has deserved to the Institution in the country related with names of such geniuses as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Evangelista Torricelli, and Luigi Galvani. It is an inevitable change according to the flow of time to change the name but I hope the essence be kept under the new name.