CFRL English News No.17 (October 10, 2000)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Prof. Hideo Kozima.
This is CFRL News (in English) No. 17 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima, now in Portland State University. The e-mail address in PSU is email@example.com.
In this issue, there are following items.
1) A new paper has been submitted to Fusion Technology and its content is explained.
2) I will give a lecture ”Thermal Neutrons and Their Influences on Nuclear Reactions in Solids” at Wednesday Seminar of Physics in PSU,
3) E. Storms has written a Review on CF in Infinite Energy No. 32 (2000) including critiques on TNCF model,
4) Some topics about CF Session in ANS,
5) Recent works done by J. Dash and his collaborators.
1) H. Kozima, “Neutron Bands in Metal Hydrides - Effects of Occluded Hydrogen on Nuclear Reactions in Solids” (Submitted to Fusion Technology)
The new idea in this paper is an inter-nuclear interaction between lattice nuclei through neutron bands mediated by occluded hydrogen isotope nucleus. There are several experimental data showing non-zero probability of a proton (deuteron) wave function at adjacent lattice nuclei and therefore nuclear interaction between the proton and the nuclei. Some numerical calculations are proceeding in our laboratory.
2) H. Kozima “Thermal Neutrons and Their Influences on Nuclear Reactions in Solids” (to be presented at Wednesday Seminar of Physics Department at PSU)
There are several remarkable discoveries in science and technology related with properties of neutrons. These include the discovery of such exotic nuclei as He-10, Li-11, and Na-32 and so on in nuclear physics, and techniques to control neutrons such as a neutron trap and a neutron guide, which are used to investigate properties of neutrons.
We have worked with thermal neutrons in solids and found some new and interesting features not noticed before. The most important fact is the formation of band structure in the energy spectrum of neutrons in solids. A simplified calculation of the band structure gave the result that there is a strong localization of thermal neutrons in the boundary region of crystals with appropriate structures. The results of the calculation also suggest that a new state of neutrons, a neutron drop, which is an aggregate of a large number of neutrons and a few protons, occurs in the boundary region.
These new properties of neutrons have a strong influence on interactions of particles in the solids where aggregates of neutrons occur. In the surface region of crystals, high density neutrons localized in the region will react with nuclei and nuclear reactions confined in this region should be observed as new elements and particles emitted from the crystal. The new state of crystals with high density neutrons free from nuclear binding will open a new science which should be called solid state-nuclear physics and give rise to new technology using nuclear reactions in solids.
3) E. Storms, “A Critical Evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann Effect: Part 2” Infinite Energy 32, 52 (2000)
“ --- Kozima proposes that trapped thermal neutrons catalyze the cold fusion reaction (TNCF Model). In an attempt to identify a source of such neutrons, he has proposed formation of metastable neutron clusters of various sizes. Several questions have not been answered, including exactly what conditions cause the clusters to interact with the surrounding nuclear environment, why individual neutrons are not emitted from the material during such interaction, and why the clusters do not produce “normal” nuclear products. In addition, his efforts to compare the concentration of these neutrons to the observed effects are doomed to failure because nuclear activity is highly localized and impossible to relate to the measured volume of the samples, a variable used in his model.”
E. Storms shows his misunderstanding about the nature of a phenomenological model. It should be discriminated the model and its basis clearly. Then, he should give his evaluation of the TNCF model at first and its basis next. He criticizes the TNCF model as a whole taking up only the “several questions”. As we know well, the work to investigate the basis of the model has just started and is going on. It is too early to criticize its foundation at present stage of investigation.
4) 2000 ANS/ENS International Meeting with cooperation from NEI. November 12 - 16, 2000, “Nuclear Science and Technology: Supporting Sustainable Development World Wide”
Technical Sessions, （A session on CF is included as follows.）
“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions - I” Wednesday, November 15, 1:00 p.m. (8 papers)
“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions - II” Thursday, November 16, 8:30 a.m. (7 papers)
“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions - III” Thursday, November 16, 1:00 p.m. (7 papers)
The meeting will be held at Marriott Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, D.C. and room charges for a room is $174.00 by “the discounted meeting rate ” for Single and Double.
Many presentations seem to duplicate with those presented at ICCF8 and I have decided to skip the Meeting this time.
To know general tendency of the presentation, I will cite here titles of papers on experimental works:
J. Dufour et al., “Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium”
V. Violante et al., “Recent Results from Collaborative Research at ENEA-Frascati on Reaction Phenomena in Solids”
M. McKubre et al., “Evidence of d-d Fusion Products in Experiments Conducted with Palladium at Near Ambient Temperature”
A. Takahashi et al., “Radiation-less Fission Products by Selective Channel Low-Energy Photo-Fission for A > 100 Elements”
M. Miles et al., “Excess Heat and Helium Production in the Palladium-Boron System”
T. Mizuno et al., “Heat and Products Induced by plasma Electrolysis”
G. Goddard et al., “Characterization of Uranium Co-Deposited with Hydrogen on Nickel Cathodes”
G. Miley et al., “Advances in Thin-Film Proton-Reaction Cell Experiments”
5) Recent works done by John Dash and his collaborators.
J. Warner and J. Dash, “Heat Produced during the Electrolysis of D2O with Titanium Cathodes” Proc. ICCF8 (to be published)
Cold rolling 20％appears to increase both the amounts of excess heat and reproducibility obtained by electrolysis of acidified D2O with titanium cathodes. Unexpected elements such as chromium and iron were detected on the surfaces of cathodes after electrolysis. The presence of chromium was confirmed by neutron activation analysis.
G. Goddard, J. Dash and S. Frantz, “Characterization of Uranium Co-deposited with Hydrogen on Nickel Cathodes” Proc. ANS/ENS Meeting 2000 (to be published)
Previously, it has been reported that nuclear transmutation reactions are accelerated when radioactive elements are subjected to low-level electric fields during electrolysis of aqueous electrolytes. Our research investigated the co-deposition of U3O8 and H on Ni cathodes, using an acidic electrolyte and a Pt anode. Then the radiation emitted by the electroplated U3O8 was compared with radiation emitted by unelectrolyzed U3O8 from the same batch. Radiation measurements were made over a period of about two months with a matched pair of Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors using 10 mg of each sample. Consecutive three-minute counts were taken for 15 hours each day and stored in a computer. The results are shown in Fig. 1. The electroplated U3O8 initially produced about 2900 counts in three minutes (4-17-00). This rose sporadically in steps to about 3700 counts in three minutes on 5-11-00, and it remained relatively constant at this level until the GM measurements ended on 6-8-00. The unelectrolyzed U3O8 from the same batch emitted radiation at a much lower rate, about 1250 counts in three minutes, and is remained almost constant over the entire period of measurement.
After the GM measurements, a gamma ray spectrometer was used to measure radiation from the same two; 10 mg electroplated and unelectrolyzed U3O8 samples. The net integral of the same 36 peaks for the same measurement time (25 hours) gave 53,000 counts for the electroplated sample and 31,000 counts for the unelectrolyzed sample. Alpha and beta measurements are underway for both samples.
The cathodes are characterized before and after electrolysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The unelectrolyzed U3O8 is also analyzed using the SEM and EDS. Fig. 2 shows SEM micrograph of typical surface structure of uranium electroplated on a nickel cathode. The donut-like features appear to be the result of microscopic surface eruptions, which produced voids, surrounded by raised circular rims. Fig. 3 shows an EDS spectrum from electroplated U3O8 on a nickel cathode. In addition to oxygen and uranium, cesium, iron and nickel are present. A peak at 16.36 keV, which overlaps with a uranium peak at 16.44 keV, is tentatively labeled as fermium. Mass spectrometer and x-ray diffraction studies are also underway. (Figures are omitted.)