CFRL English News No.16 (September 10, 2000)

 Cold Fusion Research Laboratory      Prof. Hideo Kozima.


   This is CFRL News (in English) No.16 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima.

In this issue, there are following items.

1)   ICCF8 Report4 (Details 3)  

2)   F. Scaramuzzi’s conclusion of the Conference, and

3)   H. Kozima’s conclusion of the Conference.

The Editor of this CFRL News will leave to PSU on the beginning of September and the News will be published in Portland even if periodicity will not be kept.


1) ICCF8 Report (4) (Details 3)

  In the previous Report (3) appeared in the News No.15, I have listed Research Groups including Prof. Carlos Sanchez of University of Madrid (Spain), which did not present any paper at ICCF8. After the publication of the News No.15, I have known the reason he did not attend the Conference that one of his brothers had died immediately before the opening day. I express my condolence on the death of his brother and hope we can cooperate to precede the CF research.


(3)-2 Samples with Large Surface/Volume (S/V) Ratios (Continued)

   H. Yamada of Iwate University, Japan performed a similar experiment to that presented at ICCF6 by E. Yamaguchi et al. (cf. “Discovery” 6.5c) and observed the excess energy Q and tritium.

[043] Tritium Production and Anomalous Increase in Temperature of Palladium Deuteride/Hydride induced by DC and AC Current in Evacuated Chamber.”

In the explanation of the data obtained by E. Yamaguchi et al., I have pointed out a possible explanation of the data in H-system as showing the excess heat and particles with mass 3 in the compound sample Au/ PdDx / MnOy while the authors did not take up those data as meaningful (“Discovery” p.203): ”This result is, however, might be an evidence of nuclear reactions generating tritium by reactions (11.3) succeeding (11.6) or ---“

The data obtained by H. Yamada et al. have confirmed this presumption.

   Y. Iwamura et al. of Mitsubishi Heavy Industry have been working with multi-layer cathode including an oxide layer and observed the excess heat and NT.

[059] “Nuclear Products and Their Time Dependence Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium through Multi-layer Pd Containing Low Work-Function Material.”

On the surface of their sample Pd/X/Pd (X= CaO, TiC, Y2O3 and so on), They observed heterogeneous elements including Mg, Si, S, and Fe with isotope ratios different from natural ones.

   De Ninno et al. in Italy have been working with Pd thin films and a preliminary data has been presented.

[093] “The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in a Novel Electrolytic Configuration.”

Their sample is a ribbon-like Pd film deposited on a glass substrate. The size of the ribbon is 5 x 10^-3 in width, 100 cm in length, 5 - 2 x 10^-4 cm in thickness. The observed excess heat is about 30 - 50 % of the input energy.

   Another group of Lecce University in Italy used Pd film with thickness 16 - 141 nm evaporation deposited on Si wafer. The sample was in contact with D_{2} gas of 2 - 5 bar for a week and then some of them were irradiated a weak laser beam. On the surface of the samples, change of the surface and NT were observed.

[027] “Studies of Transmutation of Elements in Deuterated Pd Films Irradiated with an Excimer Laser.”

The surface of samples with and without irradiation, there observed cracks and bubbles with a diameter of 5 micrometer around the cracks. New elements by NT were Fe, Ni, Zn, Na, Mg, Al and others up to 5 % each and up to 20 % as a whole depending on the thickness of the film and irradiation.

  There are several experiments to elevate D (H)/Pd ratio as large as possible. It is obvious a sample with a large S/V ratio is advantageous for attaining a high value of D (H)/Pd ratio.

[052] “High Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading in Thin Palladium Wire and Preliminary Calorimetric Results Obtained in Electrolytic Cells.” (D. Garbelli et al.)

[095] “A Gas-Loading Experiment as a Function of Temperature.” (F. Scaramuzzi et al.)

[096] “High Hydrogen Loading of Thin Palladium Wires through Alkaline-earth Carbonate Precipitation on the Cathodic Surface; Evidence for New Phases in the Pd-H System. Unexpected Problematics due to Bacteria Contamination in Heavy Water.” (F. Celani et al.)

[099] “An Experimental Protocol to Achieve H/Pd = 1 in Thin Wires with a Peculiar Electrolytic System and a Preliminary Study with a D/Pd System.” (A. Spallone et al.)

   In China, there is an experiment with a film sample

[068] “Study of Deuterated Titanium TiDx Sample by Using Nuclear Reaction Analysis and Material Analysis Methods.” (T. Wang et al.)

The sample is a Ti layer deposited on a Mo base and necessary conditions to obtain high value of D/Ti are investigated.

   These experiments have attained high values of D (H)/Pd (Ti) ratio. It is, however, not clear that the correlation of the high qualitative reproducibility of CFP and the high value of D (H)/Pd (Ti) is established or not. In the TNCF model, it is more important to make the distribution of hydrogen isotopes inhomogeneous in depth than make the value of deuteron (hydrogen) density itself. In reality, many attempts to make their distribution inhomogeneous by parameter changes have shown their usefulness.

   Our next theme is the protium system shortly described in the beginning of ICCF8 Report (3) given in the previous News No.15.


(4)-1. Cold Fusion Phenomenon (CFP) in Protium System. (Cf. Discovery” Chapter 7)

   The experiments introduced before by G. Miley observed the excess heat Q and NT in a multilayer sample [065], by R. Notoya observed Q and gamma ray in a porous Ni sample [036] and by H. Yamada observed Q and NT in multilayer sample [043] have shown occurrence of CFP in protium systems which had been investigated from 1991. There are more works on this system presented at ICCF8.

   X.Z. Li et al. who had observed Q and NT (Zn and others) in H (D)/Pd systems (cf. “Discovery” 9.2e) presented experimental confirmation of their former work in cooperation with foreign research groups in Italy (De Ninno et al.) and US (Passell et al. [100])

[063] “Nuclear Transmutation in Various Metal Hydrides and Deuterides.”

[100] “Impurity Analysis of Palladium Exposed to D2 and H2.

   The data of X.Z. Li et al. showing a lot of Zn on the sample surface had been successfully analyzed by the TNCF model (“Discovery”11.12d). In the paper by Passell [100] it is confirmed the former data as follows: ”Its appearance in palladium exposed only to gaseous hydrogen removes that possibility [cathodic deposition from zinc impurity in the electrolyte] and suggests other possible sources. The only plausible source of a nuclear nature would seem to be the fission of Pd to a pair of elements in the region from Si to Ge, many of which would yield about 20 MeV per fission.”

   An Italian group including S. Focardi of Bologna University had announced a shocking data of a large excess heat in Ni-H system in 1994 without following presentations of reliable data. (Cf. “Discovery” 7.1d). This time, in the Conference held in Italy, they presented good data on the protium system:

[109] “Ni-H Systems.”

“The most important experimental results obtained in the last years on the Ni-H system will be presented. In particular, we will report on 1) hydrogen absorption at low pressure (< 1 bar) and high temperature (500 - 700 K) in Ni, 2) thermal power production up to 70 W for long period (up to 10 months), 3) control capability on the power production, 4) experimental evidence of neutron and gamma rays emission, and 5) detection of several chemical elements different from Ni and H on the specimen surface.”

   If we can assume the same sample size as before (5mmφX 90mm), then the S/V ratio is 8.2 and the output power of 70 W corresponds to a density of 40W/cm^{3} which is ranked at a high level in CF experiments. Focardi et al. observed also neutrons, which are, compared the data by Bressani et al. of the neutron energy spectra in Pd-D systems (cf. “Discovery” 6.2c). It is desirable to have an energy spectrum of the neutron observed in Ni-H system, which makes identification of the nuclear reactions in the system generating Q and neutron. We can expect their cooperation with the group in Milano University. It is also true about the gamma ray spectrum, which makes possible to compare the experimental results with our theory.

   T. Ohmori et al. in Hokkaido University had been working successfully with protium systems and presented a new experiment of high-voltage discharge in liquids observing Q and NT.

(4)-2.CFP in Deuterium System (cf. “Discovery” Section 6)

   Many groups working with D_{2}O with positive results have shown also progress in their researches with elevated qualitative reproducibility.

   In Japan, A. Takahashi et al. of Osaka University [014] has observed Q and He-4 in PdD system and K. Ota et al. of Yokohama University [090] has observed a little Q in Ni (Pd) /H2O+K2CO3 (D2O+LiOD) system.

[014] “Search for Coherent Deuteron Fusion by Beam and Electrolysis Experiments.”

[090] “Some Experimental Results on Heat Measurements during Water Electrolysis.”

   In Italy, G. Mengoli et al. observed Q and gamma in Ti (D2O+K2CO3) system without identification of the nuclear reactions causing the heat.

[007] “Anomalous Effects induced by D2O Electrolysis at Titanium.”

   A group of D. Chicea et al., Univ. of Lucian Blaga of Sibiu in Romania presented an experimental result:

[054] “Experimental Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in Deuterated Titanium Samples under Non-equilibrium Conditions induced by Temperature Variation.”

They observed bursts of neutron emission from TiDx when the temperature had changed between 701050K.

   Chernov et al. of Tomsk Polytechnical University, Russia have been working with electrolytic system and presented their data in Russian Conferences held annually. This time, they could present their interesting data at ICCF8 held in Italy not so far from Russia.

[001] “Change of Lithium Isotopic Composition during Hydrogen Charge of Titanium.”

[061] “Excess Heat Release upon Hydrogen Isotopes Electrolytical Saturation into Metals Covered by Porous Films.”

The work [001] has shown clearly elevation of Li-6 relative density compared with Li-7 in the frontier of diffusion into cathode materials. This fact is as expected from the mass difference of the diffusing isotopes and is advantageous for the TNCF model explaining some features of CFP by the n-Li-6 reaction. The work [061] has shown an interesting effect of a porous film on the cathode to improve the qualitative reproducibility in the excess heat generation.

   In US, many have also performed electrolytic experiments. We have introduced the data by M. McKubre et al. [029] (cf. News No.15, (3)-1).

   J. Dash et al. of Portland State University have obtained a similar data in Ti cathode to that in Pd cathode done before (cf. “Discovery” 9.1h).

[006] “Effect of Cold Work on the Amount of Excess Heat Produced during the Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes.”

In this experiment, they observed Q and NT including Si, S, Fe, Cr, and Al and so on by an amount up to 8% of Ti.

E. Storms had been working in electrolytic experiments of Pd/D systems for 11 years and presented this time an experiment on Pt/D_{2}O + LiOD.

[032] “Excess Power Production in Pt Cathodes using the Fleischmann-Pons Effects.”

He observed sporadic generation of the excess heat in proportion with the electrolytic current.

   M.H. Miles of Naval Research Laboratory presented his data obtained in Japan in 1998 done as a part of the NHE project.

[058] “Calorimetric Studies of Palladium Alloy Cathodes Using Fleischmann -Pons Dewar Type Cells.”

There is a controversy on the estimation of the excess heat observed in the experiment. He presented a positive data of the excess power about 0.2 W (0.6 W/cm^{3}) according to his method of calibration from alloy cathodes Pd-B, Pd-Ce-B, Pd-Ce having S/V ratios about 10. In the final report of NHE Laboratory, on the contrary, the data was classified to null results contradicting with the conclusion by M.H. Miles. It is difficult to determine an exact value of experimental observation if the event is sporadic and has small value.

(4)-3 Discharge and High Energy Ion Bombardment

   There have been performed several experiments of CFP in systems with glow discharges in gases, with arc discharges and with high-energy ion bombardments (down to few keV) with positive results. When the energy of D ion is above 1 keV, the situation in the solid is different from those where occurs CFP. The motion of D ion with this energy is outside of the condition for the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the result cannot be extrapolated to the situation of lower energies.

   In the case of glow discharge, the ion colliding with the cathode has not so high energy as estimated from the applied voltage and might be treated in the frame of CFP. Only titles of the papers are listed below. Other experiments of low energy nuclear reactions in solids and theoretical works will be introduced in the following issues if possible.

[021] “The Problems with Reproducibility in a Gas Glow Discharge are a Consequence of a Nature of Process?” (I.B. Savvatimova)

{078} “Registration of a Superfluous Heat at Sorption-Desorption Hydrogen.” (V.A. Romodanov et al.)

[084] “Analysis of Excess Heat Power Production, Impurity Elements Produced in the Cathode Material and Nuclear Products Results in Experiments with High-current Glow Discharge.” (A.B. Karabut)

Those investigations made in Russia have given excellent positive results as introduced in my book already (cf. “Discovery” 6.4e and 9.1c). (To be continued.)


2) Concluding Remarks given by F. Scaramuzzi.

Dr. F. Scaramuzzi, Chairman of ICCF8, has concluded the Conference on the last day by listing impressive points as follows (according to the Summary given by Alternative Energy Institute Inc. in its home page)

1. There was strong confirmation by McKubre, Arata and Takahashi of excess heat, He-4, along with correlation of heat production relative to He-4 produced. So, yes, cold fusion exists and is nuclear in origin.

2. There was significant work on Pd, charging modes and mechanisms by Frascati and Celani.

3. An important and definitive trend toward using small dimensional Pd pieces such as powder, wire and thin films emerged, and it appears that high surface area to volume samples charge more readily.

4. The measurement of nuclear products as a result of cold fusion is very alive.

5. Many theoretical works were presented, and Scaramuzzi found some of them interesting and some questionable. He favors the theories based on coherence catalyzed by a lattice of Pd using de Broglie waves with coherent phases.

6. Production of excess heat by cold fusion is real and of nuclear origin. This is verified now and is quite sure.

   The sentence in 5, ”---on coherence catalyzed by a lattice of Pd using de Broglie waves with coherent phases.” is difficult to understand clearly but seems related with the local coherence of neutron Bloch waves due to the band edge effect shown in the paper appeared in Fusion Technology (Vol. 36, p.337 (1999)).


3) Concluding Remarks by H. KozimaWhat revealed at ICCF8.

   In a presentation at ICCF8, I have given a comment on the general tendency of researches in our community that is disturbing establishment of science of cold fusion. I would like to write down some of typical points in it here.

1. In the research field in its infantile stage, accumulation of knowledge should be rated at the top to avoid confusion by sporadic presentation of experimental data neglecting previous results. We have had several presentations without citation of similar previous works as if the data is the brand-new one.

2. Presentation of an experimental data should be accompanied with what kinds of measurement are performed and what are observed or not observed in the experiment To promote researches in this field, ambiguous expressions should be avoided as far as possible. I have used words “conceptual barrier and patent barrier” to express obstacles preventing sound development of CF science. The former has appeared as a result of cohesion to some biased concepts in critical opinion against CFP and also in presentations by researchers in this field. The latter we have encountered in many presentations at ICCFs.

3. We have to clearly recognize own methodology in performing theoretical and experimental works. Recognition of each methodology makes dialogue between experiment and theory fruitful.

4. To develop new science not known before, it is necessary to recognize what is new in the experimental results or in theoretical models and calculation. If the science is really new, there should be a new factor, expressed as a missing factor in my book “Discovery”, not noticed before. We can concentrate in the missing factor in investigation and in critics to promote science of CF.

   Some concrete problems are pointed out below.

5. There have several experimental data of simultaneous observations of Q and He-4 and also Q and NT. In the presentation at ICCF8, there are also some additions to these data. This is a clear proof of the nuclear origin of the excess heat Q. If Q is generated by nuclear reactions, it is possible to take a liberated energy per a reaction as about 5 MeV. Then, Q (MeV)/5 and number of generated nuclei N are compared quantitatively. From our analyses of many experimental data sets, it has become clear that Q/5 is comparable with 3N showing the cause of the excess heat is not restricted to a reaction generating a kind of nuclear products observed but several (cf.. “Discovery” Tables 11.2 and 11.3).

6. Occurrence of CFP in the protium system is confirmed again at ICCF8. Many data sets with positive results in various H-system show clearly CFP is a characteristic of a system composed of solids including high-density hydrogen isotopes at near room temperature. To explain CFP as a whole systematically and consistently, it is definitely necessary to consider D- and H-systems together seeking a common missing factor for them even if it is possible to explain them by different causes in each system. Choice of a viewpoint is a matter of one’s aesthetics.