CFRL English News No.15 (August 10, 2000)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Prof. Hideo Kozima.
This is CFRL News (in English) No.15 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima.
In this issue, there are following items.
1) My paper ”Electroanalytical Chemistry in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon” will be published soon in a book 'Recent Research Developments in Electroanalytical Chemistry' published by Transworld Research Network Inc., Trivandrum, India. The abstract of this paper is printed in this News. 2) ICCF8 Report No.3 (Details 2). Interesting experimental data with my comments on them are given.
1) Abstract of a paper
”Electroanalytical Chemistry in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon”
to be published in a book 'Recent Research Developments in Electroanalytical Chemistry' published by Transworld Research Network Inc. Trivandrum, India.
Fundamental characteristics of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) are explained from the present point of view based on the pile of complex experimental facts obtained in these eleven years after its discovery. Surface nature of the reactions and qualitative reproducibility, two of remarkable characteristics of CFP are explained by a model (TNCF model) with a single adjustable parameter. The Premises assumed in the model indicate importance of atomic processes on the surface of electrodes to realize CFP, which should be investigated by electroanalytical chemistry.
2) ICCF8 Report（3） (Details 2)
In the preceding News Nos. 13 and 14, we have given general reports on the Conference focused on the TNCF model. From this issue, we will give details of interesting experimental data reported at the Conference.
After 11 years from the announcement of the discovery of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), it should be a time of maturity of this research field, in my opinion. However, it is difficult to say that fundamental features of the phenomenon are clarified and foundation of its science has lain. Can we say with confidence that the Conference has given hopeful perspective of the science of CFP on the vast pile of data sets accumulated in these 11 years even if there are 145 participants and 26 oral and 50 poster presentations at the ICCF8?
It should be said with confidence that many groups have continued their activity for more than several years showing that the qualitative reproducibility of the phenomenon is improved very much to make them keep their enthusiasm in this field betraying predictions exclaimed by critics several years ago. However, it is regrettable to miss several names popular in past Conferences including T. Bressani of Milan, Italy, C. Sanchez of Madrid, Spain, P.K. Iyengar of BARC, India, J.O’M. Bockris of Texas A&M, USA and T.N. Claytor of Los Alamos, USA.
Experimental systems where observed positive results of CFP are divided into two groups; Heavy water system (D-system) and Light water system (H-system) (cf. My book “Discovery of Cold Fusion Phenomenon” Chapter 7). The evidences of CFP in the light water system which has been accepted dubious even in CF community first have given also in ICCF8, details of which will be given later, citing here only a short private conversation with Dr. M. Fleischmann at the opening day.
As was presented in ICCF7 and cited in my book “Discovery” (Section 17.7), M. Fleischmann recollected the early days of his investigation of CFP where he omitted any comments on H-system. To my question on this point at ICCF8, he said as follows, “There are too difficult problems even in D-system to understand, it is out of my power to treat problems in H-system,” on the whole.
This is an idea meaning that “CFP in D- and H-systems are caused by different causes and could be treated independently.” On the other hand, there could be obtained a perspective if we consider there is a common cause for CFP in D- and H-systems.” The TNCF model is standing on the latter point of view and giving a consistent explanation of various events in CFP both in D- and H-systems and hints for a new science of solid state-nuclear physics.
We will give interesting data on the samples with large surface-to-volume ratios.
(3)-1. Samples with large S/V ratios
There are qualitative facts shown by experimental data that the higher the S/V ratio of a sample is, the higher the qualitative reproducibility of CFP in the sample is (cf. “Discovery” Tables 11.2 and 11.3). Experimentalists have noticed this fact and many trials have been made to devise new samples with S/V ratios producing positive data of CFP. Followings are several examples of them presented at ICCF8 marked with a number “n” attached to an Abstract designated by a sign [n]. (This number seems attached to an Abstract at random independent of the content or the author of the paper.)
The Patterson Power Cell (PPC) noticed by occurrence of the excess heat Q and nuclear transmutation NT with high qualitative reproducibility has been transformed into a plane multi-layer sample on a base and presented by G. Miley.
 “Advances in Thin-Film Electrode Experiments”
 “On the Reaction Products and Heat Correlation for LENRs”
LENR is capitals of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction. The PPC was taken up in the ABC News at June 11, 1997 and an experimental kit was sold out by less than $4000 at that time. It is whispered at the Conference that PPC has not shown CFP any more (!). I understand this rumor, as the qualitative reproducibility of PPC should become very low. If it is so, one of reasons for lowering of qualitative reproducibility should be related with decrease of background neutron density in these several years. As is well-known, solar activity with an 11 years period and the density of the background ambient neutron have strong inverse correlation. Due to the solar activity, density of the ambient neutron had a maximum in 1996 and will have a minimum in 2000. Generally speaking, the success rate of CFP in a system should be decreasing after 1996 of course depending strongly on the structure of the sample used in the system.
The planar sample Ni-Pd-Ni-Cu used by G. Miley this time was deposited on a glass base and generated the excess heat of 80 - 110 % for an input power of about 200 mW. There is following sentence in the Abstract:
“Examination of thin-film surfaces and reaction products distribution suggest that reactions occur over a reasonably broad area of the surface/interface region with properly designed thin-film electrodes. Further, excess power densities in thin-films have been obtained that are an order of magnitude higher than that in solid electrodes or coated catalytic particles (PPC?), ---“ (Underlined at quatation.)
G. Miley contrasts his result of LENR occurring clearly in D- and H-systems altogether to CFP proposed to be explained by the d-d reaction and writes following sentence:
”---a variety of reaction products with masses both higher and lower than that of host electrode material suggest that proton-metal initiated reactions occur.”
From our point of view, the reactions of d-d and p-Pd difficult to understand from common sense of nuclear physics are excluded in the TNCF model and trigger reactions between a trapped neutron (or neutron drops) and Li, d, p or Pd produces energetic particles which induce breeding reactions to give observed events.
The explanation of selected events by d-d reactions is a counterpart of critics to deny whole CFP, which cannot explain only by d-d reactions. This point will be discussed later again.
Another sample with a large S/V ratio noticed for several years is the palladium black used in the Arata cell (cf."Discovery"6.2f). Palladium black is a fine power of a diameter about 0.4 micron used as a catalyst. In the Arata cell, palladium black is contained in a cylinder of Pd, which is used as a cathode. We have heard explanation of the Arata cell more than several times at Conferences in Japan and abroad and have not enough understanding of its mechanism. There are several presentations about Arata cell by Arata and Zhang  and M. McKubre029]
 “Definitive Difference among [Bulk-D2O], [DS-D2O] and [DS-H2O] cells in the Deuterization and Deuterium-reaction” (DS = Double Structure)
 “The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems”
The latter paper  contains experimental data on the Case cell (with porous carbon catalyst coated with palladium). On the Case cell, a report and an analysis by R. Murray were introduced in the former News Nos. 1 and 2.
Pd black is a particles with an S/V ratio of about 100000 /cm while the Case cell is a porous carbon catalyst coated with Pd with unknown S/V ratio which we can guess to be fairly large as about 10000/cm. Except existence of carbon, the both catalyst cathodes have inverse structures and it is interesting to investigate them from our point of view.
The elaborate experiments done in SRI by M. McKubre et al. (cf.”Discovery”6.1b) have shown generation of the excess heat with high qualitative reproducibility without any nuclear products. It is interesting to hear that they obtained with a good timing He-4 data in accordance with the data of Arata et al. and L. Case et al.
The data of He-4 were presented a few years ago in several Conferences in Japan and in Journals and were analyzed by the TNCF model (cf. ”Discovery”11.8d). The analysis was similar to that of J.R. Morrey et al. and M.H. Miles et al. (cf. ”Discovery” Sec. 11.8) and had given reasonable relation of Q and He-4. Arata cell has been checked several times in Japan also with ambiguous results and it takes several months sometimes to give positive results as Dr. Zhang told in a Conference. It takes probably more times to clarify physics of He-4 generation in cells including Arata’s.
A sample with a large S/V ratio of about 10000/cm used by R. Notoya is a porous Ni cathode generating effectively the excess heat and NT products. In ICCF8, a paper was presented to identify nuclear reactions occurring in the system using gamma ray data. Her conclusion is similar to that given in the TNCF model (cf. ”Discovery” 11.7f)
 “Determination of Some Nuclear Reactions Scheme Occurring in Electrolysis Systems”
A group in USA performed a new experiment with a nanoparticle of Pd:
 “Observations of the Production and Quantification of Heat, Helium-4, Tritium, and Energetic Penetrating Radiation from Deuterated Palladium Nanoparticles under a Variety of Experimental Conditions including Experiment with No Input Power Requirements”
In this work, the excess heat and nuclear products have been obtained simultaneously. Furthermore, it is interesting the “heat after death” event is observed which only the TNCF model could explain easily.
”---provide reproducible production of heat along with substantial amount of He-4, tritium and energetic photons with characteristic energy spectra. Some of these experimental protocols require continuing input power for production of the noted effects while other are completely independent of input power once initiated.” (Underlined at citation.)
Another genre of samples with a large S/V ratio is the multi-layers as pointed out in the case of Miley’s . Several successful data have been presented at ICCF8. The thickness of a layer in the sample is about 1 micrometer and the S/V ratio might be about 10000/cm.
A. Lipson in Russia has been working with multi-layer system (cf.”Discovery”6.3c). He presented new data at ICCF8 as follows:
 Evidence for D-D Reaction in Au/Pd/PdO: D Hetero-structure as a Result of Exothermic Deuterium Desorption.” (The d-d reaction is not confirmed in this work.)
 Observation of High-energy Alpha Emission in Au/Pd/PdO: D (H) Hetero-structure Samples in the Process of Deuterium (Hydrogen) Desorption”
There is an interesting sentence in the Abstract, “It was shown that alpha particle emission in the range of 8.0 - 11.7 MeV is accompanied by the deuterium or hydrogen desorption --- and has a good reproducibility.” The high-energy alpha particle should be a signal of fission reaction similar to production of heavy nuclei observed as NT. (To be continued)