CFRL English News No.14 (July 10, 2000)
Cold Fusion Research Laboratory Prof. Hideo Kozima.
This is CFRL News (in English) No.14 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima.
In this issue, there are following items.
1) ICCF8 Report No.2 (Details 1).
2) Abstract of a paper appeared in Int. J. Hydrogen Energy.
3) Announcement of JCF2 (to be held in October 2000), and
4) An Essay by Prof. M. Enyo of Hokkaido University.
1) ICCF8 Report（2）(Detail 1)
It was reported at the Conference that Prof. G. Preparata of Milano University had died just before the Conference at his age of 58 by a colitis cancer. Prof. M Fleischmann has given a memorial address in the beginning of the Conference. We have lost Prof. M Okamoto two years ago in 1998 by a lung cancer. It is pity to loose young researchers in their prime by disease.
By the final list of the Conference participants sent by mail after the Conference, total number was 150 including 43 Italian, 40 American, 22 Japanese, 12 Russian, 6 French and others.
1-1. Some Topics about TNCF Model at the Conference
Alternative Energy Institute, Inc. has given a preview of its ICCF8 Reports programmed to publish recently in its home page: <www.altenergy.org/iccf8/>
In the corner Speakers/speakers.html they have given short descriptions of presenters at the Conference. In the 20 names with some sentences of introduction, there is a name Hideo Kozima with a following introduction:
“Professor Emeritus in the Department of Physics at Shizuoka University. His paper “Neutron Band in Solids” was published in the Journal of Physical Society of Japan in September 1998. His book, “Discovery of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon: Development of Solid State Physics and the Energy Crisis in the 21st Century” was published by Ohtake Shuppan Inc., in Tokyo, 1998. The book is 370 pages and the ISBN is 4-87186-044-2. Kozima is associated in the cold fusion area with his TNCF (trapped neutron catalyzed fusion) theory, and this book focuses on the theory. Kozima was one of the first to attempt a replication of the Pons-Fleischmann paper. He was fortunate to get results in the first attempt, in the form of neutrons. He soon realized that the processes were stochastic, and therefore difficult to repeat at will. Dr. Kozima is a senior consultant and founding member of Japan’s CF-Research Society.”
In this introduction, the sentence ”this book focuses on the theory.” is one-sided and incorrect from my point of view. Similar evaluation about my book I have read somewhere ignoring 100 pages introduction of experimental data in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon in the book followed by 150 pages explanation of the TNCF model and analyses of the data by the model. The sentence cited above should be revised as follows: ”this book introduces various experimental data in CFP and analyses them by the TNCF model.”
In the home page of the AEI cited above, there are introduction of the oral presentations with color photographs of the authors. In the part of my presentation, the TNCF model is introduced with inappropriate criticism. The common misunderstanding found also in this case is confusion of natures of a model and a theory (fundamental). As I have told several times to avoid the misunderstanding, a model has to rely on a premise (or premises) not explained by existing principles. Value of a model should be evaluated by its ability to explain experimental facts not by the reality of the premise assumed in the model. The best example showing this situation is the Bohr model proposed in 1913 with a premise of “stationary orbits of electrons in atoms” contradicting with classical electrodynamics (cf. News No.12, item 4 e.g.).
The sentence in the above home page is:
“Hideo Kozima has been very prolific in describing his Trapped – Neutron – Catalyzed - Fusion theory. Central to the model is a source of neutrons, which are released under certain circumstances. When they are found to cause a nuclear reaction, the magnitude of the reaction is used to calculate the supposed concentration of active neutrons. Supported for the model is based on the calculated neutron concentration values falling within a relatively narrow range. Unfortunately, the parameters used to calculate the neutron concentrations have no relationship to the actual environment in which the reactions occur. The source of these neutrons has always been a problem, which Kozima now proposes may be cosmic neutrons related to sunspot activity.”
I have given an explanation of the trapped neutron answering to the question raised by Dr. G. Miley using the Bohr model as an example. The common misunderstanding is seen in the above sentence. I feel difficulty in understanding of an idea alien from everyday experience of modern researchers working in “Juubako” (established framework of science) far from the age of “Sturm und Drang” in the beginning of this century when Quantum Mechanics and Theory of Relativity were established.
I have sent a mail to AEI to revise these points in the materials included in their home page in publication.
2) Abstract of a paper, H. Kozima and K. Arai, “Local Coherence, Condensation and Nuclear Reaction of Neutrons at Crystal Boundary of Metal Hydrides and Deuterides” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 25, 845 (2000)
Using a concept of the neutron Bloch wave in the one-body approximation presented previously, possibilities of following effects in boundary regions of crystals including hydrogen isotopes are pointed out: occurrence of local coherence, formation of neutron Cooper pair, condensation of neutrons, formation of neutron drop and an effective nuclear reaction of a nucleus with thermal neutrons. It is shown that these new states and reactions will have strong effects on solid state-nuclear physics in metal hydrides (deuterides). Stochastic occurrence of localized nuclear reactions observed in CF experiments is explained by these properties of the trapped neutron. Possible application of the nuclear reactions in metal hydrides is discussed.
3) Announcement of JCF2 to be held in October, 2000 in Hokkaido
Following Announcement was sent from Secretariat of JCF by e-mail.
On the Second Conference of JCF
The 2nd Conference of JCF (Japan C-F Society) will be held as follows:
Site: Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan,
Date: September 21 and 22, 2000
Presentation: Oral 20 to 25 minute.
Abstract for the presentation should be sent to Secretariat of the Conference (written below) by the end of July 2000.
The Program of the Conference will be announced by the end of August.
Secretariat: Osaka University, Faculty of Engineering Takahashi Lab. JCF2.
565-0871 Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka,
Tel: 81-6-6879-7890 または 7891
4) Open Minded Attitudes to the Science --- an Essay
by Prof. Michio Enyo, Hokkaido University
One of our research topics for several years before 1989 was the Pd hydrogen electrode system. This was concerned on the study of detailed mechanism of the hydrogen electrode reaction, particularly to establish the partition of hydrogen overpotential between the process of proton (water) discharge that forms hydrogen adatoms and the process of recombination of the hydrogen adatoms that forms hydrogen molecules. Therefore, at the time of announcement of the cold fusion (CF) phenomena in the March of 1989 by Fleischmann et al., we were in a position very close to the system concerned and thus very easy to grasp the topic.
At the time of the announcement, and perhaps the time throughout until now, it is believed that the key factor of the CF would be to realize the gigantic high hypothetical hydrogen (deuterium) pressure that reflects the concentration of hydrogen (deuterium) dissolved in Pd. In this respect, we thought that we could make some contributions to the field, such as to evaluate the pressure and the means to increase the pressure under a given condition. We made some comments such as that the pressure would be very high but not as high as the level Prof. Fleischmann thought; it was determined not by the hydrogen overpotential itself but by the part that is partitioned on the hydrogen recombination process.
The Fleischmann-Pons* effect has not been perfectly reproduced during some ten years after the first announcement, but the field itself has been widened particularly for the discovery of similar phenomena even in light water system or finding the fact that indicates the involvement of atomic transmutation processes. We believe that we could make sizable important contributions in the latter topics.
Although the field of CF appears to be confirmed to a reasonable level, attitudes of the people towards the CF seems to be more and more clearly split into two categories; people in one group seems to became more and more confident to support the phenomena but the others became more solid in denying it. The situation is rather unfortunate as it prevents discussions to be held in a normal scientific manner and hence prevents development of the field in a sound sense. Science certainly grows on the basis of sound and free scientific discussions, either positive or negative, but not based on any superficial ideas.
It is said in the history of science, that the people once, and then probably many times, thought that the level of development of the science at that time was such that its essential part was mostly cleared, except for minor points. However, they were then to see that entirely new concepts and new paradigms were disclosed soon. This tells us that we should never be sure if everything is already made clear now. It is hence important for us to be modest toward the nature and to have open-minded attitudes to the development of science.
Incidentally, it is rather difficult to understand that some people even on the side supporting the CF does not seem to believe that the distance from the CF of the d-d fusion type to any transmutation processes such as the one involving light hydrogen is far smaller than the distance from the CF phenomena to the ordinary hot fusion process. In other words, if one dares to believe that the d-d type CF or the like should exist after all, he then should admit that the transmutation processes would be in a reasonable distance from the latter. Here again, people should take more open-minded attitudes. We should always anticipate wider possibilities of the science than that we know at the present time. (February 24, 2000)