CFRL English News No.13 (June 10, 2000)

 Cold Fusion Research Laboratory     Prof. Hideo Kozima.


   This is CFRL News (in English) No.13 translated from Japanese version published for friend researchers of Cold Fusion Research Laboratory directed by Dr. H. Kozima.

  In this issue, there is following items.

1)   Report of ICCF8 (1), Brief Report and

2)   Abstracts of our papers presented at ICCF8 (for readers not attended it). In the original Japanese version, there is a 3-pages long essay, “A message on the Cold Fusion” (2) by Dr. T. Sawada, which is to be translated by the author in near future and published in this news.


1) Report of ICCF8 (1).

The 8th International Conference on the Cold Fusion (ICCF8) (Lerici, Italy May 21 - 26, 2000) has been held with success. In the Conference, it was confirmed that the experimental data obtained hitherto are reproduced with high qualitative reproducibility researchers who have been working in this field for several years. Theoretically, several models including the TNCF model have been presented and explained in detail and become common property of the research community.

 In this issue, it is explained only abstract of the Conference and details will be reported in the following issues published next and following months.

 There have been presented 26 oral presentations (35 minutes presentations- 20, 20 minutes- 6) and 50 poster presentations. Many experimental works have shown confirmation of their former results with higher credibility and qualitative reproducibility. In the theoretical part, the oral presentation of the TNCF model contributed most to make clear realization of the present status of CF research, from my point of view.

 Miley et al. obtained a similar result in planar multi-layer films to PPC widely investigated several years ago. McKubre et al obtained He-4 in proportion with heat in the Case cell and also in the Arata cell. Miles and Fleischmann explained details of calorimetric techniques and Miles demanded recognition of his positive result obtained in NHE lab in Sapporo in 1998(?).

 Hagelstein, P. declared his success to obtain the probability of d-d fusion reaction in solids assisted by phonons using second order perturbation calculation in accordance with the experimental result obtained by McKubre et al. In my opinion, however, his calculation has shown only existence of a channel of d-d fusion reactions and not its reality in solids at room temperature. It is necessary to show relative probability to other channels and also the effects of higher order terms. If his result is correct, this is a very important work in physics showing an inverse-dissipation process in solids with high-density deuterons. Details of this problem will be discussed in forthcoming issues.

 On the last day of the Conference, several people selected regionally have presented Concluding remarks.

 Next Conference, ICCF9, will be held in Beijing two years later in May of 2002.


2)   Abstract of our three papers presented at ICCF8. (For readers not attended to ICCF8)


 Hideo Kozima, Masayuki Ohta, Kunihito Arai, Mitsutaka Fujii, Hitoshi Kudoh and Koki Yoshimoto


   The TNCF (Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Fusion) model for the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) has been recognized very useful as a model with a single adjustable parameter nn and with several premises common for different materials to explain various events in the CFP.

   In this paper, we will give a self-consistent explanation of the nuclear transmutation (NT) observed in thin films and surface layers by the TNCF model. Phenomenological investigation of the real meaning of the parameter n_{n} of the model is given.

   With the TNCF model, we can explain such phases of the NT as its localization and its species explained by decays (NT_{D}) and fissions (NT_{F}) of new isotopes of elements formed from elements in the original system by absorption of a neutron(s).

   The nuclear transmutation in solids has been observed in CF experiments from around 1994 by R.T. Bush et al., I. Savvatimova et al., M. Okamoto et al. and others in its NTD form and from 1995 by J.O'M. Bockris et al., T. Mizuno et al., T. Ohmori et al., R. Notoya et al., G. Miley et al. and others in its NT_{D} form.

   The former (NT_{D}) had been explained by such reactions as (nu for Greek nu)

    n + ^{23}Na = ^{24}Na = ^{24}Mg + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{27}Al = ^{28}Al = ^{28}Si + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{39}K = ^{40}K = ^{40}Ca + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{85}Rb = ^{86}Rb = ^{86}Sr + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{106}Pd = ^{107}Pd = ^{107}Ag + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{196}Pt = ^{197}Pt = ^{197}Au + e  + nu_{e},

    n + ^{16}O = ^{17}O = ^{13}C + ^{4}He.

In these cases, the experimental data suggest drastic shortening of decay times of the compound nuclei formed by absorption of a neutron.

   The latter (NT_{F}), on the other hand, has been explained by such reactions as (A’’ = A - A’ + 1):

   n + ^{A} Pd = ^{A+1}Pd*,

     = ^{A’}Al + ^{A”}As,

     = ^{A’}Cu + ^{A”}Cl,

     = ^{A’}Ni + ^{A”}Ar,

     = ^{A’}Fe + ^{A”}Ca,

     = ^{A’}Cr + ^{A”}Ti,

     = ^{A’}Zn + ^{A”}S,

     = ^{A’}Ru + ^{A”}He,

   n + ^{A}Cr = ^{A+1}Cr*,

             = ^{A-3}Ti + ^{4}He,

In theses cases, the experimental data suggest drastic lowering of the threshold energy of the fission reactions of nuclei formed by absorption of a neutron. It was also necessary to consider simultaneous absorption of several neutrons by a nucleus to explain the mass spectrum of the NT_F products as a whole.

   The real meaning of the trapped neutron and its density n_{n} should be elucidated from the first principles of physics and a trial toward this goal is given in another paper presented at this Conference.



Hideo. Kozima


The cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) recognized clearly in 1989 has evolved into a big science including several principal events from the excess heat production and tritium, helium-4, gamma ray and neutron generations sought initially in this field to nuclear transmutation confirmed in these several years. Assuming a common cause for these events with wide variety, we proposed a model (the TNCF model) with an adjustable parameter n_{n} based on an assumption of existence of thermal neutrons in appropriate solids and gave a systematic and consistent semi-quantitative explanation of the whole events in the CFP.

   In this paper, we investigate physics of neutrons in solids using quantum mechanics on one hand and experimental facts revealed in the CFP on the other. Such concepts as the trapped neutron, the energy band of a neutron in solids, neutron affinity of elements in solids, local coherence of neutron Bloch waves at crystal boundary and the neutron drop n{N} p{Z} composed of N neutrons and Z protons with N very large compared with Z are proposed as useful concepts to support the model and they are treated quantum mechanically to realize in solids with appropriate characteristics suggested by experiments where observed positive results of the CFP. The real meaning of nn is investigated.

   The energy band of a neutron in solids is a corresponding concept to that of an electron well known in solid state physics. The neutron band, however, is an important concept to treat neutrons in solids even if this conventional concept has not been noticed hitherto in neutron physics due to the short life of neutrons in free space of about 887 s.

   The neutron in an energy band interact with lattice nuclei coherently through the nuclear force and the energy becomes lower and stable than that of a state after the decay of the neutron into proton emitting an electron and a neutrino. A measure of this stability will be described by the neutron affinity of lattice nuclei proposed by us. The neutron affinity of an element is defined as an energy difference of two states, one with a neutron in the band and another with a neutron absorbed by a lattice nucleus of the element.

   It is interesting to notice that materials giving positive results for CF phenomenon usually have positive values of the neutron affinity, i.e. the trapped neutron is stable in the material against decay into proton, electron and anti-neutrino.

   Neutrons in an energy band with the minimum at Brillouin zone boundary and expressed by Bloch waves show the local coherence due to the energy coincidence in the band at a region where neutrons are reflected by a potential wall too thick to penetrate through it. Density of trapped neutrons at the boundary region becomes as huge as 10^{12} times that of a single neutron when there are as many neutrons as 10^{6} cm^{-3} with wave vectors near the Brillouin zone boundary.

  These conclusions on the single-particle picture have to be supplemented by many-body picture forced to take into consideration when density of neutrons becomes high in a region where the local coherence realized and the nuclear reaction between neutrons becomes important. In this situation, the neutron drop n_{N}p_{Z} will be formed by condensation of neutrons at a seed made of neutrons and protons (and lattice nuclei) in the region of condensation.



Hideo Kozima


   There has been an abyss between researchers of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), more precisely “nuclear reactions and accompanied events in solids including high density hydrogen isotopes”, and critics against it since its discovery in 1989.

   To construct a bridge between banks of opposing two communities separated by the abyss, it is necessary to have a common language, the scientific logic achieved in these four centuries of modern science; positivism based on the facts.

   In the case in front of us, the most controversial points are the reproducibility of the events in the phenomenon and the applicability of modern physics, especially quantum mechanics, to CFP. In terms of the former point, any theoretical work should explain the poor reproducibility of CFP, and of the latter, it should recognize own relationship with physical principles including quantum mechanics, which are common properties of modern science.

   We have endeavored to explain various events in CFP as a whole characterized by the poor reproducibility in the framework of modern physics using a model - the TNCF model. A model is, in general, a system of working hypotheses (or premises) not explained for a while by the existing principles and is distinguished from a theory which is a system constructed by logical deduction from the principles even if a model and a theory belongs to theoretical means.

   Usefulness, or reason for being, of a model is estimated by its ability to explain facts obtained by experiments or observation. The premises assumed in the model should be verified logically from general principles. There are special cases in history of science where a premise opened the door to a new principle as illustrated by Planck’s assumption of the quantum of action.

   In this paper, we will give the logical structure of the TNCF model and typical examples of its successful explanation of various events in CFP.

   The TNCF model is a system of Premises with a single adjustable parameter nn. The Premises are based on facts obtained in experiments of CFP and therefore the TNCF model is a phenomenological one. Fundamental Premises are 1) existence of quasi-stable thermal neutrons (trapped neutrons) with a density n_{n} in solids, 2) effective reaction of the trapped neutron and a nucleus on the lattice (a lattice nucleus) in the boundary region of the solids.

   About 60 data sets of various events in CFP from the excess heat to the transmuted nuclei through tritium, helium-4, neutron, and gamma and the poor reproducibility of CFP are successfully explained qualitatively and quantitatively in some cases using the parameter n_n of values from 10^{6} to 10^{12} cm^{-3}. At last, physical basis of the Premises assumed in the model is discussed briefly.