|The Floral &
Greenery Expo' 90 Commemorative Tsurumi Green Land
Park" in short, 花博記念公園 鶴見緑地 （ Hanahaku Kinen -Kooen Tsurumi Ryokuchi ）,is a
square meter area. In 1990, the International Floral & Greenery Exposition
held here. Now, this area has a horse riding course, camping places,
large ponds with many
kinds of wild birds, forests, countryside zone, valley
of the flowers, boulevards, play-grounds for
various kinds of sports,
swimming pool, water-falls, beautiful brooks, rose garden, a tea house
tea ceremony, tennis courts, Oservatory Tower,
the Osaka Ecological Study Center, flower
and plant wholesale market, gardens
of many countries, and the last but not the least is the
Sakuya - Konohana
Botanical Pavilion 咲くやこの花館 ,one of the largest and the unique
botanical gardens in
The name " Sakuya ー Kono hana" was chosen as the most popularly
wanted among many
candidate names sent to the Committee of the
"Sakuya-Konohana" ー 咲くやこの花 − is the first phrase of a
famous ancient poem collected
in the Anthology of " the old and modern
poems " - Kokin-Wakasyu 古今和歌集edited in
905 at the imperial order of the Emperor Daigo, and
means " Now is the time for the blossoms
to bloom in Naniwa ( Osaka)".
難波津（なにわづ ）に NANIWAZU NI
咲くや この花 冬ごもり
SAKUYA KONOHANA FUYUGOMORI
今は 春べと咲くやこの花 IMAWA HARUBE TO
SAKUYA KONO HANA
（ On the Beach of Naniwa, now is the Spring time
for the blossom to bloom,
after enduring the cold and severe
Tomb of Dr.
Fujisaka, Hirakata City,
Wangin -Korean Scholar who brought
Chinese characters and Confucianism
According to legend,
this poem was composed by doctor Wangin
( 王仁博士ーWani Hakase in Japanese )、a Korean
is said to have come to Japan at the beginning of the 5th
from the Kingdom of Baekche ( 百済 − " Kudara " in Japanese ).
the Korean Peninsula. He is said to have handed to emperor
Nintoku this poem
with some braches of plum blossom. Each
year, on February 11th, people near the Kôzu Shrine - Kôzu
Jinja 高津神社 will hold " Plum Blossom Dedication Ceremony
to emperor Nintoku at the shrine. It's the Shrine dedicated
to emperor Nintoku as the main deity. The Kôzu Shrine is
also on the Uemachi
In the Nara period, the flower that was admired most was the
blossom, and not the cherry blossom. "Hana" ( flowers) in
almost always meant plum blossom, as in later periods, "Hana"
always cherry blossom, unless otherwise specified.
Some Japanese historians say that it isn't clear that the
appear in Japanese history dating upto the 6th century really
doubting the descriptions written in the history books Kojiki
Shoki 日本書紀, which are
based upon oral traditions and
were edited at the beginning of the 8th
Some historians doubt that the emperor Nintoku and Dr.Wan-in
existed. They do not explain whom the large mausoleum in Sakai
city belonged to if emperor Nintoku did not existed.
the Korean records, Doctor Wangin really existed, and
he is believed to have
gone to Japan in 405, when he was 32 years
old, at the invitation of the
Japanese emperor Ôjin 応神天皇.
Actually, in Yeogan-gun
霊岩郡、in the province of Jeollanan-don ( Southern
Cholla Province ) 全羅南道,
they hold a big " Wangin Culture Festival " each year in honor of this
great Korean scholar.
He is said to have brought to Japan 10 copies of the Analects of
Confucius 論語 十巻 and a
copy of Senji Bun"− 千字文 ).
The Senji-bun is a poem in which 1,000
letters were used, but every letter was used only once. It was a good text book
to practice writing the 1,000 basic Chinese characters.
arrival of Dr.Wangin to Japan, another Korean scholor Achiki 阿直岐 was serving
in the Imperial
Court as an imperiql advisor. He was an adviser to the emperor and also was
tutor to the prince Uji-no-Waki-Iratsuko(宇遅能和紀郎子/菟道稚郎子/宇治稚郎子).
One day, emperor Ôjin asked Achiki : " In your country,
is there other scholors
wiser than you ? The Imperial
advisor replied : " In my country, Dr.Wangin is second to none
The emperor wanted to invite Dr. Wangin ( Known as "Wani
Hakase " in Japan ) to Japan,and
sent 2 envoys to Baekche to invite him to
Japan. He came to Japan with several potters and
craftmen. He is considered
,therefore, a benefactor for the various industries in Japan, and
not only a
person who officially introduced to Japan Confucianism and Chinese
Dr. Wangin was born in Yeongan-gun,in the Southern Cholla
Province. He was very clever from his childhood and became the Doctor of 5
Classics 五経博士 at the
age of 18. He is nowadays respected very much by the Korean people and
specially in Yeongan-gun, where he was born. The government of Yeongan-gun
County hold each year the Wangin Calture Festival with many events.
Yeongan-gun, Southern Cholla Province.
( Government of Yeongan-gun county )
Koreans seems to have almost forgotten for a long time this great man so
respected in Japan, who went to Japan about 1, 600 years ago. The Commitee to
investigate about Dr.Wangin started its investigations only in 1973. The
construction of the memorial park of " Dr. Wangin's Historical Site " was
started in 1985, and it was completed in 1987.
Japan, he had been almost forgotten for many centruries. In 1731, a Confucian
scholar in Kyoto, Namikawa Goichiro 並川五一朗 read the old documents deposited in Wada
Temple 和田寺 in
Hirakata City, 枚方市, Osaka
Prefecture. Based on the document, he traced and found the tomb stone of Dr.
Wangin known in Japan as Wani Hakase. Now, around the tomb stone there is the
beautiful Wani Park, with cherry blossom trees, tennis courts, and
a swimming pool.
In June - October,
you can see the beautiful blossom of the Rose of Sharon called Mugunghwa
無窮花 in Korea and known
in Japan as Mukuge 木槿.
The Mugunghwa is the national blossom of Korea. This blossom has been admired
by Korean people, because it stays in bloom for a long time, from late spring to
summer and autumn. The blossom simbolizes eternal prosperity for Korean People.
In Japan, however,the cherry blossom has been admired, just because it stays in
bloom only a few weeks . The short life of the Cherry blossom is the theme of
many Japanese poets who admired it.
日本名 ； 木槿（むくげ）
Muguanghwa in Korean
Mukuge in Japanese
Recently, the toursts from Korea began
to visit Wani Park.
In November of 1998, in Kokufu-cho, Tokushima
City 徳島市, many wooden tablets with the records supposedly written by the
local government officials in the first half of the 7th century to practice
caligraphy and one tablet with the poem "Sakuya Konohana" were
Thus, it was proven that in the first half of the 7th century,
this poem was well known among
It is said that Dr.
Wanjin was a great admirer of the prince Osazaki-no Mikoto, and that his
of " Now is the time for the blossom to bloom " was for the prince and it
" Now is the time for the prince Osasagi to assume the throne.
Another version of the
meaning of the poem could be " Now is the time for
the Nation to bloom under the reign
of the wise emperor Nintoku, if he
would rise to the throne.
The throne was vacant for 3 years, because the crown prince
宇遅能和紀郎子believed that his brother Osazaki-no Mikoto is more wise than he,
more competent to throne. But, the prince Osasagi declined the offer
the crown prince should succeed his deceased father Emperor Onin.
Uju city, Kyoto prefecture.
The Crown Prince was at quite a loss. He
believed that for the Nation, his wise brother should assume the throne. His
brother did not accept it and the throne was vacant for 3 years. Finally, the
crown prince comitted suicide to make his brother rise to the throne. The
prince Osasagi finally decided to rise to the throne and he become emperor
In the Uji- gami-jinja Shrine 宇治上神社 in Uji City 宇治市 , Kyoto prefecture, the souls of the emperor Nintoku, Prince Uji-no-Waki-Iratsuko, and their father the emperor
Onin were enshrined.
This temple is a National Treasure desiginated by
the Government. In 1994, the temple together with the near-by
Byodo-in Temple were desiginated as World Heritage.
Many people may
wonder why this humble-looking shrine is worthy to be a National Treasure and a
World Heritage. The Shrine will not impress anybody who looks at it. The
style of this shrine has a historical value. It is representative of the
primitive architecture of the shinto shrines, called Ikkensya-Ryu-Zukuri. In the
Shrine, there are 3 smaller built-in shrines, one for each deity.
Emperor Nintoku proved to be a wise, virtuous and a benevolent emperor, as his
believed him to be so.
One day, the emperor Nintoku climbed a
high tower and looked far and wide over the land he
was governing and found
that no smoke was going up from the houses of his people.
He knew that
his people were so poor and had no rice to cook. He was so depressed that he
decided not to collect any taxes for 3 years and not to make his people to
be enganged in labor.
Because of his no labor policy, the Imperial Palace
damage was not repaired, and his robes and
shoes were worn out, but he did
not get new ones.
After 3 years, he climbed a
high tower again to look over the
The emperor Nintoku
viewing the country he
rules, from a lofty tower.
Mejesty was glad to see
much smoke arising from
the kitchen furnaces
subjects and composed the
famous " land viewing
land, to find much smoke arising from the
of many houses. The emperor was so happy, and composed
高き屋（や）に のぼりて見れば 煙（けむり）立つ
TAKAKI YA NI NOBORITE MIREBA
TAMI NO KAMADO MO
(We have ascended a lofty tower, and can see
arising from the kichen furnaces of
our prosperous and happy people )
This famous poem is called "the land viewing poem of the emperor
Nintoku - Nintoku Tenno Kunimi No Uta - 仁徳天皇国見の歌. "After 3 years of no tax
and no labor, he decided to extend the tax-free period 3 years more. He
employed, instead, a surplus labor from agriculture to be engaged to construct
roads and public facilities, and a canal at Horie in the Uemachi Plateau to be
connected to the Kawachi Bay, which was connected to the Osaka Bay.
said : " We do not feel to be poor, when our people are not poor. We are rich
when our people are rich. We have heard that the ancient wise soverigns used to
accuse themselves when their people were poor. "
Obviously, his Korean
teacher Dr.Wangin infused the emperor with the Confucian Ways of the
Sovereigns. After the death of the emperor, people constructed the huge
mausoleum for him. In his life, he did like to employ his people even to repair
the walls of the Imperial Palace for 3 years, but hundreds of thousands of
people must have worked to construct the huge mausoleum for him. This is very
ironical and contradictory,to tell the truth. You could call him as one of the
worst Pharaoh. When he was alive, he searched for a nice site for his
Near this mausoleum,there are many huge burial mounds called
"Kofun 古墳 −which are said to have
been the mausoleums for the emperors ,the members of the Imperial families or
the heads of the powerful clans. The period of Kofun - burial mounds - began
in the later 3rd century, and became very huge at the beginning of the 5th
century, and then, they became smaller in the 6th
Nintoku in Sakai city,
Mausoleum of the Emperor
Nintoku in Sakai city,
Moat of the Mausoleum of
This mausoleum is the largest in the world in area.
the pyramid of Gizeh - the largest
pyramid in Egypt ,and larger than the
of the First Qin Emperor ( Shin no Shikotei in
Many archeologists and historians would like to excavate
mausoleum to find many facts about Japan in the 5th
century. But, this
mausoleum is under the administration
of Agency of Imperial House - Kunaicho
- 宮内庁. This
sacred grave of the emperor. They did not like to
issue permission to
excavate this mausoleum.
This is surrounded by moats. But, some
graverobbers may have entered the mausoleum and have excavated it and robbed
some valuable objects.
Any visitor to this beautiful "Tsurumi Ryokuchi
(Green land) park, unless well informed,
can hardly imagine that this place
was once swampy land some decades ago, with water
-laden rice paddies and
lotus marshes. This place was swampy ponds connected with
the Kawachi Bay
which was connected with the Osaka Bay in ancient times. The Kawachi Bay
disappeared a long time ago.
When I was a child, the roads in this
area were frequently flooded after a heavy rain. In these
lotus root was cultivated in post-war times. The lotus root is edible and
delicious. In my childhood, my mother used to prepare for my family "Lotus
Root Shao Mai".
It was so delicious. At some Izakayas in Japan, you can
try and taste the "辛子蓮根 − Karashi
Renkon − Mustard stuffed
Lotus Root " which I don't like much personally. In some more
Izakayas, you can eat "Renkon Shao Mai ”蓮根の焼売 − Renkon no Syumai ".
Osaka, in postwar times, the lotus root was eaten as economical and nutritious
for dishes. But, it is not so inexpensive today. Vast swamp lands
in the suburbs of Osaka
City, and in Minami-Kawachi and Kita-Kawachi areas in
Osaka prefecture were turned into
the areas with houses, factories and super
The cultivation of lotus root has disappeared almost completely
in Osaka City, and the
production of the lotus root in Kawachi area has
reduced much also. We, in Osaka, now
buy lotus root that comes from other
prefectures, like Tokushima.
In the Kanto District, Ibaragi prefecture
茨城県 has a large
production of lotus root
cultivated in 1,650 hectare lotus swamps. In the
basin of the Tone River with many of
its tributaries, there are large
A visitor to the Tsurumi-Ryokuchi Park hardly can believe
that this place, once swampy,
had been turned to a garbage dumping site,
before it was turned to be the Exposition site
and the park. The Osaka City
government has a long range plan, to turn it into a huge
park, when the
place would become filled up with millions of cubic meters of piles of
waste, and garbage. This plan was decided in 1941.
of tons of garbage, trash, and remnants from the constructions began
transported each day to this site in 1970s, creating a hill of more than
meters high. Osakans began to think that it is a good idea to hold the
Floral & Greenery Exposition here.
Government of Japan was not much in favor of this idea of the Osakans.
Osaka, the Expo'70 had been held already in 1970.
government thought that a big International Exposition should be held in
another city, such as Nagoya, Tokyo, Yokohama , Kobe, etc.
Osakans thought " What's wrong with the second time ? " . One of the politians
from Osaka tried to persuade the Government to decide on Osaka as the site
International Exposition, and negotiated with the influential
politician, vice-president of
he Liberal Democratic Party, Nikaidô Susumu, who was the most trusted
man of Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei. Nikaidô is believed to
have said " My hobby
Curiously enough, the homophone of " Nikaidô" is " How about the second time ? "
The politician from Osaka asked him " Nikai Dô ? " ( "
How about the second time in
Osaka ? ). The Osakan joke worked well, and
Osaka was decided on as the site of the
garbage had been put in layers , with the fresh soil poured on each layer, and a
of clay was used also to keep garbage in place. This was called "
As the garbage would continue to ferment, the exhaust
vynil pipes were inserted deep
n the grounds for the exhaust of gas
generated from organic material. The gas exhaust
went on decreasing as the
Finally in 1990, the International Floral & Greenery
Exposition was held in this area. 82
countries and 50 international
organizations participated in the Exposition, which was a
big success. Many
of people living in Osaka went there repeatedly over time. During 6
23 millions of people visited there, leaving a good surplus of profit.
The profit was used as a foundation to build the new installations after
the end of
Exposition. Many installations and buildings were broken down
after the Exposition,
but the international gardens, other gardens, ponds,
some facilities, the observatory
tower & the Botanical Pavilion have been
preserved, and the new facilities and
buidings were added to this place.
In the Exposition ' 70 of Osaka ( 大阪万博 ）, United States and the Soviet Union
to make display of their scientific and technological achievements.
Osaka was the site of
Cold War of the propagandas of the two
The so called Space Era may have started in 1957 really, after
launching by the Soviet
Union of Sputnik-1 which flew into orbit.
12th April 1961, the Soviet Union launched into space the Vostok maned by Yuri
Gagarin.It flew around the Earth in 1 hour and 48 minutes. He was the
first human to travel
The Space Race represented the Cold
War between the two blocs. The Soviet Union went
on one step ahead of the
United States in exploring space.
3 weeks after the successful flight of
the Soviet Union, however, on May 5th, 1961,the United
States launched the
Space Ship Mercury which made the same achievements done by the
Thus, the Space Race became head to head close.
On July 20th, 1969, Neil
Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the Moon. More than
billion people on the Earth watched the scene of his landing on the Moon and
his message of " That's one small step for man, one giant leap
for mankind. "
In the World Exposition ' 70 of Osaka, the stone brought
from the Moon was displayed in the
U.S. Pavilion. Tens of thousands people
rushed to the U.S.Pavilion to look at the Moon Stone
each day. I was a high
school student, and I went to the Exposition three times, but I gave up
plan toenter the US. pavilion. Outside the Pavilion, there was always a long
line of people
waiting. They said that they must stand in line more than 3
The Soviet Pavilion was as huge as the American Pavilion. But,
people were not interested in
the photos of Gagarin - the first human who
travelled into space and so many books translated
in japanese of Lenin and
Stalin. We were not interested in their propaganda movies about the
on earth, the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and the books written by
After the successful landing of the human on the surface of the
Moon in 1969, the U.S.
government was forced to reduce the budget on space
exploration. Viet Nam War started in
1960 had no favorable sign toward
It had lingered on already 8 years. Viet Nam War ended in 1975,
after spending 150 billion
dollars. In 1989, the walls in Berlin collapsed,
which triggered the end of the Socialist
regimes in East Europe. In 1991,
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics became the Russian
Finally, the United States won the Cold War and the Space Race.
entered into The New Era of the International Cooperation in space exploration
knowledge about space among us. The United States can not afford to
pay for the huge
program of the Space Station for shuttle flights of space
ships. The international cooperarion
means sharing of the enormous costs and
efforts needed by other nations. Russia is no
longer the enemy of the United
Both governments signed the treaty of cooperation in
space exploration by the manned
space ships in October, 1992. NASA and the
Russian Space Agency (RSA) have agreed to
cooperate in the area of human
space flight. The program agreed on included the flight of
cosmonauts on the US Space Shuttle,the flight of US astronauts on the
Nir Space Station, a joint mission involving the rendezvous and and
docking of the U.S.
Space Shuttle with the Mir Station. This was decided to
be called jointly as the " Shuttle-Mir
20 years after the
World Expostion ' 70 in Osaka, people were not interested so much in
technological developments. In the 60's and 70's, Japanese paid much
attention to the
developments, and not so much to the environmental issues.
Some serious pollutions
caused in the 60's by some factories began to atract
public attentions only from the 70's.
The theme of the Exposition ' 90 of
Osaka was harmony between the human beings and
nature. The project to turn
the garbage dumping place into the Exposition site of flowers and
so becoming the theme of the Exposition.
In the Sakuya-Konohana
Pavilion, there are 8 zones of different climates and the regions on
Earth, with 2,600 species of flowers, trees, and grasses from the tropical humid
to dry deserts, high land flowers of the Alps, the Rocky Mountains
and the Himalaya Mountains,
and low land plants.
In the Pavilion,the
temperatures, humidities, and atmospheric pressures are controlled for
different section. Therefore, this is not an ordinary green house.
Zone of International gardens are also interesting. There are many gardens from
countries. England, America, Mexico, Brazil, Monaco, India,
China, Korea, Thailand, Pakistan,
Holland, and many other countries.
Visit this place and you can enjoy an entire day here. The entrance
to the Park is free of charge,
although you have to pay for the entrance to the
Sakuya Konohana Botanical Pavilion. It is more
economical than other
|Sakuya Konohana-kan Botanical Pavilion
Sakuya Konohana Kan