Theme of Today :

Koreanization (Part 1)

What is "koreanization"?

コリアナイゼーション (第一回)


Key passage:

Koreanization is the technique for invading other nations' culture.



1. What's "koreanization" ?

I introduced the documents how the name of taekwondo had been decided and how the fabricated history of taekwondo was exposed. The latter document shows the link to the webpage created by Steve Capener who exposed its fabrication. The word, "koreanize" or "koreanization" is found in his page.

1. コリアナイゼーションとは

テコンドーの命名の経過と、 歴史の捏造が露見していく過程についての資料 を紹介させていただいたわけですが、後者のリンク先 にテコンドーの歴史捏造を暴露した Steve Capener氏が作成された資料があります。 この中で、「コリアナイズ」及び「コリアナイゼーション」という言葉 が出てきます。

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The overemphasis on establishing and asserting t'aegwondo's indigenous Korean origins and development, however, has actually been an impediment to t'aegwondo's potential growth and development. T'aegwondo seems to have reached it's goals of international recognition upon its inclusion as an official sport in the 2000 Sydney Olympics, testimony to the incredible growth of t'aegwondo as a sport in the last 35 years, that t'aegwondo is now grappling with serious philosophic problems, regarding its identity and future development.

The main cause of these problems is found in the history of t'aegwondo's origins. The fact that t'aegwondo was first brought into Korea from Japan in the form of Japanese karate around the time of the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonial rule, and the way this fact has been dealt with in Korea has left many serious inconsistencies in the way t'aegwondo has been developed within Korea and propagated abroad.

This process of development can be broadly outlined as follows: Japanese karate called kongsudo or tangsudo was introduced to Korea just after liberation from Japan by Koreans who had learned karate in Japan. Upon returning, these Koreans opened karate gymnasiums promoting what they were teaching as karate, much like the process followed by the early Judo instructors. Well after these schools became established, the need to "Koreanize" was felt.

The process of Koreanization consisted of three main aspects.

The first was the selection of a new, non-Japanese name.
The second was the creation of a system of techniques and training which was distinctly different from that of karate,
and the third was the attempt to establish t'aegwondo's existence and development within tile historical flow of Korean civilization. The development of a new system of techniques and training was under-taken by moving away from karate's nature as a martial art of self-defense through the development of t'aegwondo as a sport? This has been called the "competitionalization" or sportization of t'aegwondo.

This, however, is where the problems which still plague t'aegwondo had their genesis. First of all, the concept of martial art based on the Chinese philosophical concept of tao was developed in Japan beginning with the transformation of swordmanship from a battlefield necessity to a form of philosophic human movement. This philosophical concept, as it was applied to fighting skills by the Japanese, did not exist in Korea. Rather, during the last half of the Choson dynasty, physical activity, especially of a martial nature, became all object of scorn and a sign of low breeding as seen in the royal court attitude of valuing learning and disregarding martial skill. Koreans' first concrete exposure to this concept of martial art was through the martial arts training judo and kendo under the militaristic education policy effected by the Japanese during the colonial period.

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テコンドーが韓国に発祥して発展したということを過度に強調し認めさせ、主張することは、しかしながら、実際問題としてテコンドーの潜在的な成長と 発展の妨げとなってきた。テコンドーは2000年のシドニーオリンピックにて 公式スポーツとなり国際的に認知されることと、最近35年間のスポーツとしての 限りない発展への自己証明とで目標を達成してしまったようにみえる。 テコンドーは今、自己認識と今後の発展について、重大な哲学的な問題に 取り組んでいる。

これらの問題の主たる原因は、テコンドーの起源についての歴史にある。テコ ンドーは、植民地支配から解放されるころ、当初日本から韓国へと、日本の空手 という形でもたらされたという事実。この事実の韓国での取り扱われ方により、 テコンドーが韓国で発展し、海外で広まっていく中で多くの重大な矛盾が放置 された。




これは、しかしながら、その起源にまだテコンドーを悩ます問題があることを 示している。第一に中国の哲学的な概念の道(タオ)に基づいた武術の概念は、戦場での必要性から哲学的な人間的な心構えへと剣客の精神が変容することを始まりとして、日本で発展した。日本人によって格闘技術へそのまま適用された、この哲学的な概念は、韓国には存在しなかったのだ。李氏朝鮮の後期では、 むしろ肉体的な活動、特に戦闘的な性格のものは何でも軽侮の対象であり、 育ちの卑しさの現れと見なされた。これは王室の戦闘技術への無関心と評価の 態度に見られたものであった。 韓国人が最初にはっきりこの武道の概念に出会ったのは、植民地時代、日本の影響による軍国教育でなされた柔道や剣道の武道の訓練を通してだった。


"Koreanize" or "Koreanization" is not well defined in this sentence. But it is obvious that koreanization is for removing Japanese impression from Japanese culture and giving the false impression of "Korean culture". Koreanization is quite different from usual localization. Because koreanization is carried out based on the intent to obscuring the identities of Japanese culture.

(to be continued)

「コリアナイズ」ないしは「コリアナイゼーション」は、文中、必ずしも明確に定義されているわけではありません。 しかし、日本の文化から日本らしさの印象を取り除き、「韓国文化」の印象を与えるためのものであることは明らかです。 「コリアナイゼーション」は単なるローカライズとは異なります。大元に文化のアイデンティティをあいまいにしようという 意思があるからです。


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