Theme of Today :

Many words from Japan


Key passage:

Under Japanese rule, many words were imported from Japan to Korea.
After the war, Korea have been trying to "wipe out" these words from Japan as a national policy. But many words from Japan are still used today. This helps us to understand the background that Korean people did not want to think Kendo is Japanese culture.




I looked back over the history of taekwondo by quoting from Gim Wanseop's work. Then I found this following sentences.
"After coming into power, he(Park Chung-Hee) began a powerful anti-Japan campaign under the banner of "wiping out Japanese culture". At this time, many words from Japan were replaced by strange words of unidentified nationality. Korean martial art worlds also could not avoid this influence."
Even now I can see the articles that some Koreans are going to replace the words from Japan. These articles appear on Korean newspapers' site (I see Japanese version).

Though they have been "wiping out Japanese culture", there seems to be something to be wiped out left. But it's also definite that there are so many "Japanese words" in Korean language.
"I think there are the outright majority of idioms of Chinese characters from Japan in Korean language. But it is difficult to investigate correctly because Korean people can not accept the fact. "

"When World War II ended, Korea must reorganize Korean language including Japanese. From that time, it was a national policy to purge "Japanese".".
This is a quotation from "My anger and sadness against Korea"(Written by Toyoda Aritsune, Published by Nesuko, 1996). He is a famous science-fiction writer. I have once read some of his works over 20 years ago. He has became familiar with Korea without my knowledge. He had even acquired Korean language.

Following descriptions are mainly based on this book.

Korean people had been accepting many "Japanese words" under Japanese rule(1920-1948). Korean government or some activists have been trying to purge these words. But even now many words are widely used.

These were only a small part of all "Japanese words".
We can categorize these words into some groups.  

1. The words came from Japan with modernization and economic development
(Words about modern concepts, industries, technologies, economy, military and so on)
In the Meiji Period(1868-1912), Japan imported many modern concepts and technologies from the United States or Europe. Japanese people were translating such words into Japanese. For example, economy, science, physics and religion. Most of them were created as Chinese character idioms, which were imported into Korea, and now used.
(Exactly speaking, Korean students did not learn Chinese characters today. Chinese characters became little-used, and only hangul characters(phonogram ) are used in many cases. Then many Koreans do not know original Chinese characters. They know only pronunciations of them.
There are many Chinese characters which have Korean unique pronunciations. And forgetting original Chinese characters leads to forgetting words' origins. )

Meaning of the word
(Words from Japan)
Japanese pronunciation Korean pronunciation Remarks
Kei-zai Kyonje Some of them were created by educators' or thinkers' exertions in the Meiji Era. For example, Fukuzawa Yukichi. They created Shuu-kyou(religion), Ka-gaku(science) and so on. Such words were needed as translations. They were created for understanding modern concepts. Not a few of them are also used in China.
(For that matter, the name of China, "People's Republic of China" consisted of Chinese characters' idioms which made in Japan (but "China").)
Butsu-ri Mururi
Shuu-kyou Chongyo
Shin-bun Shinmun
Sen-kan Chonamu
Junyou-kan Suniyanhamu
Kuchiku-kan Kuchukuhamu
Shacho Sajan
Chief director
Senmu Chonmu
Department director
Bucho Pujan
Kacho Kuwajan
Kakariin Kewon
Booking clerk
Yoyakugakari Ieyakuke
Company limited
Kabushikigaisha Chushikufehsa
Kumiai Chohabu
Shitauke Hachon
Big sale
Ohuridashi Tehmehchuru
Some "Japanese" words had the same or similar pronunciations also in Korean language. But today Korean people intentionally use more different pronunciations from Japanese. For example, discunt(waribiki), cancel(torikeshi),reserved(kashikiri) and so on. . (Many Chinese characters have multiple pronunciations both in Korean and in Japanese. )
Though Korean words are same Chinese characters as Japanese, different pronunciations may relieve Korean people because Korean people don't have to be conscious of their origin. Same applies to "kumdo".(They don't want to call Kendo Kendo for a same reason.) Now Korean people are more and more forgetting Chinese characters, and they have less and less oppoetunities to know their origin. In a manner, this is chronic disease of many Korean people.
Waribiki Harin
Uriba Mejan
Kashikiri Tehjoru
Torikeshi Chuiso
Shiharai Chiburu
Tetsuduki Susoku
Uragaki Iso
Multiple pickup
Ainori Hapusun
Toujoutetsuduki Tapusunsusoku
Home appliance
Kateidenkiseihin Kajonchongichepumu
Basho Chanso
Job site(Scene)
Genba Hyonjan
Fugitive warrant(Wanted)
Shimeitehai Chimiyonsupeh

There leaves an unexpected word which still has the same Chinese characters and pronunciation as Japanese language. The word is "Yakusaku" which means promise. This pronunciation is no difference from Japansese. I can not believe Korean people had no word which meant promise before Japanese rule, but this makes me feel something mysterious. Then I heard won(Korean unit of money) was a pronunciation of Japanese old yen(Chinese character). But officially, won has no Chinese character. Is this because Korean people were unwilling to be conscious of its Japanese origin?

This may show one of the real reasons that Korean people repealed Chinese character education program. They might want to save their fantasy.
2. The words came from Japan with Japanese things or culture
The words of this group often keep the same pronunciations as Japanese.

Meaning of the word
(Words from Japan)
Japanese pronunciation Korean pronunciation Remarks
One of Japanese noodles.
Soba is another kind of Japanese noodles.
Udon (Same pronunciation as Japanese) Korean people created the word, "kukusu" for this. But "kukusu" is used only for Korean unique noodle.
A wet towel for wiping hands before a meal.
(Same pronunciation as Japanese) Korean people created "murusugon" for this. But frequency in the use of "murusugon" is no different from oshibori.
Disposable wooden chopsticks. It is necessary to split apart a pair of chopsticks before using.
Waribashi (Same pronunciation as Japanese) Korean people created the word of "sodokucho", but waribashi is used more frequently.
No explanation needed.
(Same pronunciation as Japanese) Korean people created the word of "chobabu". But Korean people can understand "sushi".
Japanese bowl
(Same pronunciation as Japanese) The word "toppabu" has same meaning.
A meal of rice topped with a deep-fried pork cutlet, egg.
Katsudon Kasudon
A kind of pickles
Takuwan (Same pronunciation as Japanese)
A martial art developed in Okinawa.
Karatedo Konsudo Korean people modefied Karate, and named taekwondo.
Splitting up one group into two teams(one team is a "red" team, another team is a "white" team)
(Formerly, this was also used in Japan.)
Genpei comes from Genji and Heishi. In the 12th century, both were the powerful Samurai's families of Japanese Emperor's blood, and they had been struggling for power over the generations. "White" means a flag of Genji, and "Red"means a flag of Heishi. (At last, Genji defeated Heishi, and established first feudal government in Japan.) In Japan, Genpei itself is a dead language(exactly, dead pronunciation(reading)). At Kendo matches, umpires use white and red flags, but Genpei sounds like Japanese very well. Is this the reason why Korean people don't want to use white and red flags in Kendo?

It is needless to say that Kendo(Korean pronunciation: kumdo) falls into this group.
3. The words came from Japan, but wiped out
In the meantime, some words had become dead ones in Korea because of "wiping out Japanese culture".

Meaning of the word
(Words from Japan)
Japanese pronunciation Old Korean pronunciation Remarks
Raw seafoods which are thinly sliced into pieces
Sashimi (Same pronunciation as Japanese) Korean people now use "feh" of another Chinese character.
Feh means dishes of shredded raw meat.
Deguchi Churugu Korean people use "naganungo" which is a native Korean language.
Kogitte Sochurusu Korean people now use "supyo" of other Chinese characters.


「朴正煕は執権後、日本風文化清算という旗印のもと、大々的な反日キャンペーンを展開した。このとき多くの日本用語が、 国籍不明の変な用語に変わった。」
現在でも韓国の新聞のサイト(日本語版)には、思い出したように日本から来た言葉を韓国の言葉へ置き換える運動の記事が載ります。 これまでさんざん、 「日本風文化清算」を行ってきていながら、 まだ清算する対象が残っているらしいのです。それだけ日本由来の言葉が多いという ことのようです。
「韓国人は認めたくないだろうから、正確な調査もなされていないようだが、韓国 で使っている漢字熟語のはるか過半数を超える相当な部分が、 おそらく日本語起源である。」
これは豊田有恒著「韓国へ、怒りと悲しみ」(1996年 ネスコ)と言う本からの引用です。筆者は有名なSF作家で、 20年以上前に私もそのSF小説をいくつか読んでいたのですが、知らない間にすっかり朝鮮半島の専門家になっていたようです。韓国語までマスターしていました。

 朝鮮半島は日本統治時代に、日本由来の言葉を数多く受け入れていきました。これらの言葉は、韓国が国を挙げて、 あるいは個人からの働きかけでなくしていこうとしているのですが、現在もなお数多く使われています。


経済、科学、物理、宗教などの近代的な概念は、西洋から入ってきたものですが、韓国(当時は李氏朝鮮 )は日本を通じて受け入れたため、 現在も日本で創られた漢字熟語が使われているのです
(正確に言えば、現在の韓国では「漢字熟語の韓国語読み」だけが使われています。現在、漢字教育そのものがなくなってしまい、表音文字のハングルのみが 使用されているため、 「漢字熟語」そのものは使用頻度が減っているのです。漢字の発音は韓国語固有のものが多いので、 韓国人が漢字を忘れてしまえば、元の漢字を知る機会は格段に少なくなるのです。
日本由来の言葉 韓国語での発音 備考
経済 キョンジェ これらの漢字熟語の中には、明治時代の思想家、教育者である福沢諭吉などによる労作が含まれています。宗教、科学などですが、 こうした言葉は、日本を近代化するためには西洋からの近代的な概念を咀嚼し、理解するためにつくられました。韓国だけでなく中国でも使われています。(中華人民共和国の「中華」を除く漢字熟語は日本製です。)
科学 カハク
物理 ムルリ
宗教 チョンギョ
新聞 シンムン
戦艦 チョナム
巡洋艦 スニヤンハム
駆逐艦 クチュクハム
社長 サジャン
専務 チョンム
部長 プジャン
課長 クワジャン
係員 ケウォン
予約係 イエヤクケ
株式会社 チュシクフェーサ
組合 チョハブ
割引 ハリン
下請 ハチョン
大売出 テーメーチュル 割引、取消、売上、売出、貸切などは、日本語に近い発音で読んでいたのを、わざわざ漢字の別の読みを採用しているとのことです。
同じことはkumdoにも言えます。 ましてや現在の韓国人は漢字を忘れつつあるのですから, 日本語と同じ言葉であることを知る機会はさらに少なくなるわけです(ある意味、一種の病気だと思います)。
割引 ハリン
売場 メジャン
貸切 テージョル
取消 チュイソ
支払 チブル
手続 スソク
裏書 イソ
相乗 ハプスン
搭乗手続 タプスンスソク
家庭電気製品 カジョンチョンギチェプム
場所 チャンソ
現場 ヒョンジャン
指名手配 チミヨンスペー

中には漢字も発音も同じ言葉として「約束」という言葉があります。日帝統治以前、これに相当する概念はなかったのでしょうか?いくらなんでもそんなことは ないでしょうが、不思議です。 また、ウォン(貨幣単位)は日本語の円(正確には旧字体の円)の韓国語読みだそうです。 しかし、ウォンには漢字表記はないことになっています。これも「漢字表記を残せばすぐ日本由来のものとわかる」ことを嫌ったのでしょうか?


日本由来の言葉 意味 韓国語での発音 備考
うどん 日本の麺料理。日本固有の麺料理はこれ以外には蕎麦がある(ラーメンも有名だがこれは中国由来)。 日本語と同じ ククスという言葉を作ったが、韓国式の麺類にしか使われていない。
おしぼり 食事の前に手を拭くための濡らした布 日本語と同じ ムルスゴンという言葉を作ったが、使用頻度は「おしぼり」と変わらない
わりばし 割って使用する使い捨ての箸 日本語と同じ ソドクチョという言葉も作ったが割り箸の方が優勢。
すし ご飯の上に魚の切り身などをのせた料理 日本語と同じ チョパブという言葉も作ったがすしでも通じる。
どんぶり 大き目のおわん 日本語と同じ トッパブという言葉もある。
カツ丼 ご飯の上に揚げた豚肉をおいた食べ物 日本語とほぼ同じだが、「カスドン」と発音する
沢庵 漬物の一種 日本語と同じ
空手 沖縄で発達した武道 コンスド 名称と競技内容に手を加え、「テコンドー」とした。
紅白 運動会で全校で分かれて争うなどの場合のチーム分けのこと。赤チームと白チームを意味する。
日本語の古い読みの「ゲンペイ」を使用。 ゲンペイは源氏と平氏を意味する。12世紀、何世代にも渡って勢力争いを行った武士の一族の源氏と平氏のこと。 白は源氏を意味し、 赤は平氏を意味する。最終的に源氏が勝利し、最初の武家政権を開いた。


日本由来の言葉 意味 韓国語での読み 備考
さしみ 生魚の切り身 日本語と同じ 生肉を細かく刻んだ料理を意味する別の漢字の読み(フェー)を使用。
出口 出口 チュルグ 本来の韓国語の「ナガヌンゴッ」を使用
小切手 現金の代わりに支払いに充てることのできる有価証券。 ソチュルス 別の漢字をあてて「スピョ」を使用。

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