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How was haidong gumdo born?


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Key passage:
Haidong gumdo was koreated by stealing another martial art without permission and making up sword(play) by himself.  Its origin and history was also fabricated. These facts were testified at the trial under oath by current president of handong gumdo group in previous times.

海東剣道は、他の武道を無断でパクり、あるいは自身ででっち上げてコリエイト された。起源と歴史も捏造された。これは現海東剣道団体代表が過去、裁判で宣誓の上、証言したことである。

The author of the blog, "Who is Chosen Ninja" informed me of the article(Japanese) of the judicial record about haidong gumdo. He has translated this trial record into Japanese. He permitted me to reprint this article, and I translated this into English. Please read this article to gain a better understanding of haidong gumdo group.

To quickly describe,
It's very suspicious group!
If you know your acquaintance who is interested in haidong gumdo, you had better inform this article to warn him(her).

Three persons helped me to translate this article. Thank you very much.

On Tuesday, the 19th of July, 2011
The history and truth of haidong gumdo unveiled in the court.

I translated the legal thriller of "Haidong Gumdo". At first I will simply explain you the background to this story for your understanding.

1. Haidong Gumdo was koreated from two Korean uriginal martial arts by Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il in 1980s. One of two martial arts was "Shim Gum Do(心剣道)", another was "Ki Chun Moon(気天門)".
- "Shim Gum Do" is (considered to be) a martial art which the Buddhist monk named Kim Chang-sik come up with during 100 days' meditation in 1965. In fact it is a plagiarism of Kendo.
- "Ki Chun Moon" is a martial art which Paku Teyon and others spread in Korea. "Ki Chun Moon" is considered to be a Korean martial art, but this is also a plagiarism of T'ai chi ch'uan(太極拳), Wing Chun(詠春拳) and Southern Praying Mantis(南派蟷螂拳) in fact.
2. Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il were classmates of a high school, and learned "Shim Gum Do" from Kim Chang-sik, the Buddhist monk. When Kim Chang-sik left for the U.S.A to spread his great Korean martial art, they took over his dojo(training hall).
3. Their dojo was ailing and went broke. After that, they changed their dojo into "Ki Chun Moon" dojo with the aid of a film company. Since then they began to use the name of "haidong gumdo(海東剣道)" and began to claim it originated from Samurang(士武郎) of Goguryeo(高句麗). But it was little-known even in Korea.
4. Kim Jeong-ho Na Han-il appeared in the TV drama as an actor. This drama dealt with "haidong gumdo", and their dojo became popular. Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il became famous as masters of Kendo.
5. Korea Kumdo Association accused Na Han-il of fabricating to hold a 7th dan in Kendo.
- Na Han-il made up a acrobatic story to explain that he held a 7th dan not in Kendo, but in "haidong gumdo". He issued his license of 7th dan by himself, and got out of trouble.
- This legal face-off made "haidong gumdo" more popular.
6. Next, Kim Chang-sik, the Buddhist monk of "Shim Gum Do" accused Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il of plagiarizing "Shim Gum Do".
- The two accepted haidong gumdo was plagiarism of "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon".
- Their claim that haidong gumdo originated from Samurang of Goguryeo was proved to be a lie.
7. The money problem occurred during expanding its organization. The organization split into two factions. One was "Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association(大韓海東剣道協会)" of Kim Jeong-ho. And the other was "Korea Haidong Gumdo Association(韓国海東剣道協会)" of Na Han-il.
8. Kim Jeong-ho accused Na Han-il. The money problem led to division. What a Korean formal beauty they showed!

Followings were translated sentences. Original sentences were;

[The history and truth of haidong gumdo revealed in court]

In 1990s the endless legal and libel battle began among three men - Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il, the founder of handing gumdo, and Kim Chang-sik of "Shim Gum Do". Meanwhile, the history and truth of haidong gumdo, which were hidden, were coming out gradually.
After all, the court of Korea revealed the history of haidong gumdo. Let us see its history appeared in court step by step.

▲ A part of the certificated examination record of 5th trial protocol in the South branch of Suwon District Court
(Docket number 99 --- 1738 libel trial the record of examination )
Q: Does the deponent(Na Han-il) know  Ssangsu Geombeop(双手剣法 method of using the double handed sword), Simsang Geombeop (心象剣法 method of the heart of swordsmanship), Yedo Geombeop (鋭刀剣法 method of using the short sword), Bonguk Geombeop (本国剣法 Korean sword method), Jangbaek Geombeop (長白剣法 the Jangbaek method), Yin and yang Geombeop(陰陽剣法), Taegeuk Geombeop(太極剣法), Haidong Geombeop(海東剣法) and Ssanggeom Geombeop (双剣法 The method of using two swords)?
A: The deponent(Na Han-il) knows Ssangsu Geombeop (双手剣法 method of using the double handed sword), Simsang Geombeop (心象剣法 method of the heart of swordsmanship), Yedo Geombeop (鋭刀剣法 method of using the short sword), Bonguk Geombeop (本国剣法 Korean sword method) and Ssanggeom Geombeop (双剣法 The method of using two swords). But The deponent(Na Han-il) dosn't know Jangbaek Geombeop (長白剣法 the Jangbaek method), Yin and yang Geombeop(陰陽剣法), Taegeuk Geombeop(太極剣法), and Haidong Geombeop(海東剣法).

Q: Who taught the deponent(Na Han-il) such sword(play)s?
A: At first, the deponent(Na Han-il) and Kim Jeong-ho of the defendant got taught "Shim Gum Do" by Kim Chang-sik who was a third person. Then we got taught "Ki Chun Moon". "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon" form the basis of my sword(play). The deponent(Na Han-il) developed Ssangsu Geombeop (双手剣法 method of using the double handed sword). The deponent(Na Han-il) and the defendant(Kim Jeong-ho) developed Simsang Geombeop and Yedo Geombeop. When The deponent(Na Han-il) and the defendant(Kim Jeong-ho) developed Bonguk Geombeop(本国剣法), they made up it to give a realistic look by reference to Muyedobo T'ongji(武芸図譜通志). In conclusion, we did not learn haidong gumdo. We gave birth to haidong gumdo, which was made from mix of "Shim Gum Do", "Ki Chun Moon" and others to be given a realistic look.

Q: Does "Shim Gum Do" of Kim Chang-sik include Ssangsu Geombeop (双手剣法 method of using the double handed sword), Simsang Geombeop (心象剣法 method of the heart of swordsmanship), Yedo Geombeop (鋭刀剣法 method of using the short sword) and Bonguk Geombeop (本国剣法 Korean sword method)?
A: No, it doesn't. But "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon" form the foundation of our sword.

Q: Does the deponent(Na Han-il) know the fact which the word of "haidong gumdo" used in 1982 for the first time?
A: Yes.

Q: Who invented this name?
A: Choe Tae-min, the priest invented it. He is a third person.

Q: Did the deponent close your "Shim Gum Do" gymnasium when you ran it with Kim Jeong-ho in 1983?
A: I just replaced a nameboard, and continued to run it.

Q: Does the deponent(Na Han-il) understand that "Shim Gum Do" and handing gumdo differ in content?
A: They don't differ but have relevance to each other.

▲The above examination record shows us some facts.
[1] Handong gumdo was created by Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il together.
[2] The name of "haidong gumdo" was created by Choe Tae-min, the priest.
[3] At first, Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il replaced the nameboard of "Shim Gum Do".
[4] Handong gumdo derived from "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon".
The founders' testimonies in court were extreme irresponsible, when recalling their past propaganda that the Samrangs of Goguryeo have once trained in haidong gumdo. At least, what they said were the evidences as a sworn witness, and we have no choice but to accept their evidences as facts. According to Na Han-il's evidences, he said "We developed Simsang Geombeop (心象剣法 method of the heart of swordsmanship) and Bonguk Geombeop (本国剣法 Korean sword method) together. I developed Ssangsu Geombeop (method of using the double handed sword) alone.". His court testimony must be very meaningful because this was the first statement of a founder of haidong gumdo that haidong gumdo was the sword which he created, and was not the martial art of Goguryeo. A part of trainees, who purely believed that haidong gumdo was the traditional martial art handed down from Goguryeo, may be desperate enough to cry.

What is the relationship between haidong gumdo, "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon"?

▲We knew haidong gumdo was created more than 20 years ago in a small room. Then, who is master Baek Du-san (白頭山師匠 Baekdu Mountain)? What is the relationship between haidong gumdo, "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon"? We could get the answers to these questions from court.
The complaint which Kim Chang-sik filed with the Seoul District Public Prosecutors Office against Na Han-il, says "The history part of 'Haidong gumdo textbook(written by Gan Yanuku)', have the following to say from page75 to page76:"
- The plaintiff inherited haidong gumdo. This is not true. Handing gumdo has no relation to the plaintiff in fact.
- "Shim Gum Do", which Kim Chang-sik founded, was a part of haidong gumdo. This is not true. "Shim Gum Do(Prevention First sword 先防剣法, Anticipate sword 先攻剣法)" has no relation to the plaintiff in fact. This explanation was written without permission of the plaintiff.
Kim Chang-sik, the founder of "Shim Gum Do", also claims "Shim Gum Do" is not haidong gumdo. Kim Chang-sik clarified the reasons why he sought a provisional injunction in the application form to prohibit the release and distribution of the books and others. He wrote "'Shim Gum Do' has the characteristic to manipulate sword in one hand. In the others' sword two hands are used". Now in haidong gumdo, the method of two hands is mainstream, Unlike 'Shim Gum Do'.
When our magazine interviewed Kim Chang-sik, he surely confessed that he taught Na Han-il and Kim Jeong-ho directory. Then he also explained why "Shim Gum Do" and haidong gumdo differ, and the founders of haidong gumdo have never gone to "Ki Chun Moon" when they learn "Ki Chun Moon". The facts are simple.

▲Kim Jeong-ho, the actor, and Na Han-il mixed the patterns of "Shim Gum Do" with one-hand and the training methods of "Ki Chun Moon" and created a new sword with two-hands. As they explained, "Shim Gum Do" and "Ki Chun Moon" form the basis of their sword. As the proof of this, haidong gumdo still adopts such unique "Ki Chun Moon" training methods as "God in the palm house(内家神掌)", "Urges knife(小刀勢)", " Tiger urges restoration(復虎勢)", "Sword biased(大刀勢)" and "Fortune pore(開運氣孔)". Some people, who has known of Kim Jeong-ho and Na Han-il in 70s or 80s, says they were making a study together on various books of martial arts opening on the floor, and created sword one by one for a few days. This corresponds to what Na Han-il confessed in the examination record in the South branch of Suwon District Court.

The Seoul High Court's judgment

The judgment of 4th civil case department of the Seoul High Court (Docket number 97?91 Provisional disposition to stop wrongdoing) shows us the bald history of haidong gumdo, which organized by lawsuits in the court. All the people related to martial arts must feel ashamed that the court intervened the fight between martial artists, and kept records of them. Now we disclose "The facts confirmed by the Seoul High Court", which were recorded on its judgment, without editing. These records must be the most reliable and meaningful documents to the martial artists and scholars who want to study of haidong gumdo's history.

▲(The plaintiff, the plaintiff in error : World Haidong Gumdo Federation The defendant: Na Han-il ) The Seoul High Court's judgment (Docket number 97?91 Provisional disposition to stop wrongdoing) We confirmed following facts from the records because of such reasons ...

(1) The defendant and the president of the plaintiff were the classmates in the Luo Xu clearing high school in around 1970. At that time, they entered Shim Gum Do Hobeopchonggwan together which was located in Sindang, Seoul. They learned "Shim Gum Do" from Kim Chang-sik, the director, who was a third person. They were trained together closely in the martial art.

(2) After Kim Chang-sik emigrated to USA in around 1975, the defendant took over his training hall and ran it(He was separated from Kim Jeong-ho at that time.). In around 1977, he closed it because of slumping business. Then he studied "Ki Chun Moon" under Pak Dae-yang, the third person. In the early part of 1980, he opened a training hall(Dojo) named "Ki Chun Moon" at Shinyang building301, Seocho63-6, Seoul with the support of President Kim Dowan of Hyonjin film company and ran it(After that, a training hall was renamed "Shim Gum Do Gymnasium", and its nameboard included "The martial art studio of Hyonjin film company".). In around 1982, Kim Jeong-ho began to work with the defendant again at Dojo of Seocho(The plaintiff claims he was the director of this Dojo, and the defendant claims Kim Jeong-ho began to work as a master(teacher) by his invitation. But this did not make much difference in view of the scale of this training hall and the business condition of this time.).

(3) Meanwhile, the defendant began to use the name of "Handong Gumdo" instead of "Ki Chun Moon" in around 1984, at the suggestion of Choe Tae-min, the third person, who taught him an exercise at this time. (According to the plaintiff's claim, Kim Jeong-ho was initiated into “haidong Gumdo”, traditional Korean sword by master Baek Du-san(白頭山), the third person in around 1961. Kim Jeong-ho respected master Baek Du-san’s idea that should be called “haidong gumdo” during his initiation. To spread this sword, he opened his dojo at Gangnam-gu Dwiklolgyeon 63-6, Seoul in around April of 1983. He claims he first used the name of “Handong Gumdo” at that time. But we can’t accept his claims because of following reasosns;
- The age of Kim Jeong-ho when he was taught.
- How the name of haidong gumdo began to be used.
- The plaintiff's claim how the name of haidong gumdo began to be used also disagrees with Kim Jonsun's evidence.
- Kim Jonsun says Kim Jeong-ho first used the name of haidong gumdo when he opened Haidong Gumdo gymnasium at Anyang-si in around 1982.
- But Kim Jeong-ho says haidong gumdo was the name he used as an official trademark when he opened haidong gumdo dojo at Shinyang building 3F, Seocho 63-6, Seoul in In around April 1984.
The introductory book titled "Introduction to Haidong Gumdo", which was written and edited by the defendant was published in around May 1984, and the group named "Haidong Gumdo association" offered its dojo to the invitational tournament of the research group of martial arts in movie. But this association was not officially established because enough menbers did not join it. And there was no other dojo where haidong gumdo was taught.

(4) By the way, when Hyonjin film company, which sponsored this dojo, bounced a check in early 1985, the defendant became to miss his work to run the dojo( He claims he and Kim Jeong-ho did other works after the dojo closed. But the dojo seemed to be run by Kim Jeong-ho after the defendant missed his work.). Then Kim Jeong-ho  opened his dojo, had the name of "Haidong Gumdo", at Gangnam-gu Samseongdong, Seoul in June 1986 with the help of Na Jong-gyun who is the third person. The defendant took up the post of the director of the Haidong Gumdo laboratory, and made efforts to spread "Haidong Gumdo" with Kim Jeong-ho , who was a general director of dojo.

(5) This dojo was officially registered as "Haidong Gumdo Gymnastic Dojo" at Seoul Gangnam educational ward office on the 3rd of February, 1987. Its founder was Kim Hyeong-jun, and its capacity was 150 people. On the 6th April, the trade name of "Haidong Gumdo Gymnastic Dojo" was registered as a business. Its representative was Kim Hyeong-jun( On the 21st September Na Jong-gyun was added as representatives.). On the other hand, "Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association" was organized under Kim Hyeong-jun on the 10th May, 1989, and was officially registered as a social organization at the All North Board of Education. On the 29th, a license of athletic facility practice was issued by Seoul City. Its type of business was an athletic facility, its representative was Kim Hyeong-jun, and its address was the dojo of Samseongdong.
(In this serial process, Kim Jeong-ho had never been its representative.)

(6) Haidong Gumdo was unrecognized not only by common people but also gumdo(kumdo) society until early 1989.
In June 1989, The TV drama "Mupung Jidae (無風地帯 Area of Calm)" became popular, and the defendant played the leading part, Yu Shi Gwan. And people in general became to know the scenes of physical training and sword art were based on haidong gumdo, and the defendant was haedong gumdo dan holder. The people who wanted to learn Haidong Gumdo increased.
Around the time, such Haedong Gumdo association or organization was established.

(7) When Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association (大韓海東剣道協会) was formed, Kim Jeong-ho took the executive director position.
The defendant was still Haidong Gumdo Institute director as he was before.
Kim Hyeong-jun took director position of the institute.

(8) Meanwhile “Mupung Jidae(Area of Calm)” made the defendant popular with viewers, he introduced himself as 7th Dan holder on TV. About this, Korea Kumdo Association charged the defendant with the management of fake dojo and qualification(7th dan) fraud on the 30th June, 1989. The defendant claimed followings:
- He belonged to Haidong Gumdo Association.
- He held 7thdan-license of haidong gumdo.
- This license had nothing to do with Korea Kumdo Association

And he accused Korea Kumdo Association of false accusation as a countermeasure.
In subsequent investigation, he submitted his 7thdan-license issued by Haidong Gumdo Gymnastic Dojo and Korea Haidong Gumdo Association whose representative was Kim Hyeong-jun. After such complications, this investigation ended with the result of cleaing his suspicion. Rather, he and haidong gumdo became widely known by this incident.

(9) By the way, when haidong gumdo became widely known, many people wanted to learn this. All over Korea, many dojo joined Great Korea Haidong Gumdo as haidong gumdo dojo. Then inter-member conflicts began to outbreak about association's operations, for example, the receipts and uses of entrance fee. At last, Great Korea Haidong Gumdo was broken in around November 1991. After break, the defendant established "Haidong Shim Gum Do Association", and took up the post of its representative. He completed the registration process of a social organization at Seoul City on the 13th November, 1991.

(10) The defendant broke up “Haidong Shim Gum Do Association” by himself on the 27th, January, and he returned to Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association at one time("Haidong Shim Gum Do Association" was renamed "Shim Gum Do Association" and is now surviving). Even after that, the money-related legal action was filed between Kim Jeong-ho and the directors of dojo belong to the Association. This lead to continuous division, and some dojo withdrew from this group. When the directors of dojo, which withdrew, formed "Korea Haidong Gumdo Association" at the end of 1992, the defendant took up the post of its president and registered as a social organization on the 25th, January 1993 up to the present date.

(11)Korea Haidong Gumdo Association at which the defendant is working as a president, teaches followings;
- What Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association teaches
They are described in "Introduction to Haidong Gumdo".
Simsang Geombeop (心象剣法 method of the heart of swordsmanship), Ssangsu Geombeop (双手剣法 method of using the double handed sword), Yedo Geombeop (鋭刀剣法 method of using the short sword), Bonguk Geombeop (本国剣法 Korean sword method), Jangbaek Geombeop (長白剣法 the Jangbaek method), Ssanggeom Geombeop (双剣 The method of using two swords), and Gyeokgeom(撃剣).
- Apparently main components of Shim Gum Do.
Ssangsu Geombeop(双手剣法), Wuisu Geombeop (外手剣法 method of using the sword with one hand), Geombeop jwabang(左方剣法 method of using the sword on the left side), Right geombeop(右方剣法 method of using the sword on the right side), Right out of geombeop(外右剣法 method of using the sword on the right out), Left out of geombeop(外左剣法 method of using the sword on the left out), Night dream geombeop(夢卜剣法 ), Non geombeop (飛鳶剣法) and others.

On the other hand, other than plaintiff's Great Korea Haidong Gumdo Association and defense's Korea Haidong Gumdo Association, the other groups, which make use of the name of "haidong" and affiliates dozens or one handred of dojo, are active in Korea. For example, "International Haidong Gumdo Federation(国際海東剣道連盟)", "Roads Act Haidong Gumdo Party(道法海東剣道会)", "Korea Traditional Haidong Gumdo Federation(韓国伝統海東剣道協会)", "Haidong Shim Gum Do Association(海東心剣道協会)". The plaintiff affiliates over 160 domestic dojo(he claims over 200), and the defense also affiliates many dojo at home and abroad.

Then, who is master Baek Du-san (白頭山師匠 Baekdu Mountain)?

▲ Now it has become clear what had happened in pioneer days of haidong gumdo and who had created each sword. Anyway haidong gumdo has no relation with Goguryeo, and this martial art was created recently by someone.

Then, who is master Baek Du-san (白頭山師匠 Baekdu Mountain)? Kim Jeong-ho claimed repeatedly that master Baek Du-san taught him a martial art. The people, who learned handong gumdo in its early days, remember that Kim Jeong-ho, the president sometimes talked about "Cheon Seon-nyeo(天仙女) at Baekdu Mountain". According to Kim Jeong-ho, when Bodhidharma came to Baek Du-san (Baekdu Mountain), he amputated his arm and devoted it to Cheon Seon-nyeo(天仙女) and taught him a martial art. As a matter of course, It's a lie that Bodhidharma was one-armed. the people of Buddhist world also cannot accept it.

-- (snip) --

Kim Jeong-ho, the president have learned Ki Chun Moon, and it is no wonder that he changed the narrative of Ki Chun Moon to the narrative of haidong gumdo. Still, some of the people, who learned Ki Chun Moon, have once met to learn discipline in the small house at Mt. Gwanak. This clarifies the rationale for Kim Jeong-ho's claim that master Baek Du-san taught him haidong gumdo at Mt.Gwanak.

In the result, master Baek Du-san was Pak Dae-yang of Ki Chun Moon.
And according to the evidence of Kim Chang-sik, who is the founder of Shim Gum Do, Mr. Son created Pungcha geombeop(風車剣法), giving the 100 days' invocation at Mt.Gwanak where the founders of haidong gumdo also learned this sword. Such various facts formed the basis to giving a concrete shape to master Baek Du-san, a fictional character, who taught haidong gumdo at Mt.Gwanak. It seemed Kim Jeong-ho's idea that Pak Dae-yang and Son promoted to master Baek Du-san.

blog「Who is Chosen Ninja」の管理人(作者)の方より、 海東剣道団体の裁判記録(日本語版)の記事を教えていただきました。管理人の方は裁判記録の和訳をされています。転載の許可をいただいたので、転載し英訳しました。裁判記録の部分はblogの管理人さんにより日本語訳されています。海東剣道団体に対して理解を深めるためにお読みください。





1. 海東剣道(Haidong Gumdo)は1980年代、キム・チョンホとナ・ハニルによって二つの朝鮮 ウリジナル 武道からコリエイト された。元になった武術の一つは「心剣道(Shim Gum Do)」、もう一つは「気天門(Ki Chun Moon)」。
- 心剣道はキム・チャンシクという坊さんが1965年に100日瞑想をしている途中に思いついた武術(ということになっている)。実際には剣道のパクリ。
- 気天門は1960年代にパク・テヨンらが韓国に広めた武術。朝鮮武術ということになっているが、やはり実際には太極拳・詠春拳・南派蟷螂拳のパクリ。
2. キム・チョンホとナ・ハニルは高校の同級生で、ともに坊主のキム・チャンシクから心剣道を習っていた。坊主が偉大な朝鮮武術を広めるために渡米すると道場を引き継いだ。
3. 経営不振で道場は潰れた。その後、映画会社の支援を受けて「気天門」の道場へと鞍替えした。このころ「海東剣道」を名乗るようになり、高句麗の士武郎(Samurang)が起源だということにする。しかし韓国内でさえ知名度は無きに等しかった。
4. キム・チョンホ ナ・ハニルが俳優としてTVドラマに出演する。ドラマの中で「海東剣道」が登場し道場が人気となる。キム・チョンホとナ・ハニルは剣道の達人として名声を得る。
5. 大韓剣道協会が、ナ・ハニルを「剣道7段を詐称した」として告訴する。
- ナ・ハニルは「私は大韓剣道7段ではなく海東剣道7段だ」というアクロバティックな言い訳を思いつき、自前で段位証を作成して難を逃れる。
- この法廷争いによって、海東剣道はますます知名度を得る。
6. 心剣道の坊主キム・チャンシクが、キム・チョンホとナ・ハニルの二人を「心剣道をパクッた!」として告訴する。
- 二人は、海東剣道が心剣道と気天門のパクリであることを認める。
- それまでの「海東剣道の起源は高句麗の士武郎」という主張が嘘と判明する。
7. 組織拡大により、金銭問題が発生。組織が分裂する。
8. キム・チョンホがナ・ハニルを告訴する。金がらみで内ゲバに発展、という美しい朝鮮様式美である。



1990年代に入ってから海東剣道の創始者であるキム・チョンホ氏とナ・ハニル氏、心剣道のキム・チャンシク氏は 終りが見えない法廷訴訟と誹謗戦を始めた。この過程でベールに隠されていた海東剣道の歴史と真実が 一つ二つ現われ始めたが、結局大韓民国の法院が海東剣道の歴史を暴いた模様になった。 法院で現われた海東剣道の歴史を一つずつ細かくよく見よう。

(事件番号 99 高段 1738 名誉毀損 証人訊問調書)







[第一] 海東剣道はキム・チョンホ氏とナ・ハニル氏が一緒に作ったものだという事実であり、
[第二] 海東剣道の名称はツェ・テミン牧師が作ったということであり、
[第三] 初期にキム・チョンホ、ナ・ハニル氏は心剣道道場の看板を変えたということであり、
[第四] 海東剣道は心剣道と気天門から派生された剣道ということだ。


キム・チャンシク氏は本紙とのインタビューで自分がナ・ハニル、キム・チョンホ氏を直接教えたと確かに明らかにしたが、どうして心剣道と海東剣道は違うのか? そして海東剣道の初期創始者たちも気天門を修練した当時に気天門で剣術を学んだ事はないと明らかにした事がある。真実は簡単だ。




▲(原告、抗告人: 世界海東剣道連盟。被告、相対方: ナ・ハニル)
ソウル高等法院の決定文(事件番号 97?91、不正行為中止仮処分) ?。認定事実


(1) 被告と原告の代表者であるキム・チョンホは徐羅伐高等学校同期同窓で高等学校在学時代の 1970年頃ソウル新堂洞にあった心剣道護法総館に入館し訴外キム・チャンシク館長指導の下に心剣道を学ぶなど一緒に武術を研いてきわめて親しく過ごした。

(2) 1975年頃キム・チャンシクがアメリカへ移民に行くと被告は武術館を引きつぎ (その頃はキム・チョンホとは離れている状態だった)運営していた1977年頃運営不振でこれを閉館した後また申請外パク・テヨン氏から「気天門」の師事を受け、1980年の初めヒョンジン映画社キム・ドワン会長の後援でソウル瑞草洞63の6シンヤンビルディング301号で「気天門」という名称の剣道場を開館、運営し (その後「心剣道体育館」と改称し、「ヒョンサン映画社武術スタジオ」と併記された看板を使った)、キム・チョンホは 1982年頃の瑞草洞道場でまた原告と一緒に働くようになった(原告は当時キム・チョンホが上記道場の館長であったと主張し、被告は被告の勧誘でキム・チョンホが師範として働くようになったと主張するが、記録に現われた当時の上記体育館の規模及び運営状況などに照らせばこれはあまり重要な問題ではない)

(3)  一方被告は上記道場を運営していた1984年頃道場で運動を学んだ訴外故ツェ・テミンの提案により当時道場で使っていた「気天門」という名称に代わり「海東剣道」という名称を使い始めた。 (原告はキム・チョンホが1961年頃訴外白頭山から朝鮮伝来の剣法を伝授され、伝授当時剣法の通り名として海東剣道と称するのが適切だという白頭山の教えを奉じて1983年4月頃これを広く伝授させようとソウル江南区瑞草洞63の6に道場を開館し、その名称として「海東剣道」を初めて使ったと主張するが、上の伝授当時のキム・チョンホの年齢、海東剣道という名称を使うようになった経緯と上の名称使用に関する原告の主張が原告側証人であるキム・ジョンスンの証言、すなわちキム・チョンホが1982年頃安養で海東剣道体育館を開館して海東剣道という名称を初めて使った (まもなく海東剣道は1984年4月頃キム・チョンホがソウル瑞草洞63の6シンヤンビルディング3階で海東剣道道場を開館しながら公式商号で使った名称だと述べている)という部分とも一致しない点などこれをそのまま受け入れるのに難しい点がある)。1984年5月頃には「海東剣法概論」という題の被告が編著者になった海東剣道に関する紹介書を発行し、また劇映画武術研究会員選抜大会に「海東剣道協会」という名前で道場をその選抜場所で提供するなど後援したところもあるが、正式に協会が結成される位その加入者の幸運にめぐまれて組職が揃ったのではなかったし、道場以外に海東剣道を教える他の道場が存在したわけなかった。

(4) ところで1985年初頃、上記剣道館の後援者だったヒョンジン映画社が不渡りに直面すると被告は剣道館の運営を中断するようになり(被告は剣道館の門を閉めた後、被告もキム・チョンホも皆別の事をしたと主張しているが、被告が運営を中断した以降も道場はキム・チョンホによって続いていたと見える)。その後キム・チョンホは訴外ナ・ソンギュンの助けで1986年6月ソウル江南区三成洞に「海東剣道」という名称を使った剣道道場を開館し、被告は海東剣道研究所長という職につくことで剣道道場の総館長だったキム・チョンホと一緒に「海東剣道」の普及に力をつくすようになった。

(5) 上記三成洞道場は1987年2月3日設立者をキム・ヒョンジン、定員を150人としてソウル市江南教育区役所に「海東剣道体育道場」という名称で正式登録され、同年4月6日には商号を「海東剣道体育道場」、代表者をキム・ヒョンジン(同年9月21日ナ・ソンギュンを代表者に追加した)として事業者登録を終え、一方1989年5月10日代表者をキム・ヒョンジンとした「大韓海東剣道協会」が組職され、同月25日全北教育委員会に社会団体として正式登録され、同年12月29日にはソウル特別市から業種を体育施設業、営業所の名称を海東剣道体育道場、代表者をキム・ヒョンジン、住所を三成洞道場とした体育施設業届出済証が交付された。

(6) 海東剣道は1989年初めまで一般人に知られていなかったのみでなく、剣道界でもよく知られていなかったが、1989年6月頃被告が主人公ユ・シグァンとして出演したTVドラマ「無風地帯」が視聴者から人気をあつめるようになってそこで放映された体力鍛錬過程及び剣道場面が海東剣道であり、被告が海東剣道の有段者というのが一般に広く知られ、海東剣道を学ぼうとする人々が寄り集まるようになり、これを前後して前述のような協会の組職及び結成が成り立つようになった。

(7) 大韓海東剣道協会が組職されキム・チョンホは協会の専務理事の職責を、被告は以前と同じく海東剣道研究所長の職責を引き受け、訴外キム・ヒョンジンが協会の代表を引き受けるようになった。

(8) 一方「無風地帯」が視聴者から人気を呼ぶなか、被告は放送などに出演して自分を剣道7段の有段者と自称し、これに対して1989年6月30日大韓剣道協会により被告がエセ剣道教習所運営及び剣道7段詐称で告訴されたのを受け、自分は海東剣道協会所属で、海東剣道7段の有段証を所持しており、大韓剣道協会の資格証とは無関係だと主張し大韓剣道協会を誣告罪で対抗告訴し、その後被告に対する捜査過程でキム・ヒョンジンが代表者になった海東剣道体育道場と大韓海東剣道協会で発給した有段証を提出することで嫌疑なしとの意見で捜査が終決されるなどの紆余曲折を経験したがこれによりむしろ世間には被告と海東剣道の名前が広く知られるきっかけになった。

(9) 一方海東剣道が一般に広く知られこれを学ぼうとする人々の数が増え全国の多くの道場が海東剣道道場として大韓海東剣道協会に加入するようになると加入費用の受領及び使用など協会の運営と関連しその構成員たちの間に徐々に紛争が発生し始め遂に1991年11月頃には大韓海東剣道協会が分裂するに至り、被告は分裂後「海東心剣道協会」を作ってその代表者職を引き受け1991年11月13日ソウル特別市に社会団体登録を終えた。

(10) 被告は1992年1月27「海東心剣道協会」を自ら解散しまた大韓海東剣道協会に復帰した事があるが(「海東心剣道協会」はその後「心剣道協会」という名前に変更されて維持されている)、その後にもキム・チョンホと所属館長の間に金銭問題に関連した訴訟が引き起こされて、一部道場が離脱するなど分裂が続き1992年末頃の分裂していった道場の館長たちにより「韓国海東剣道協会」が結成されると被告は韓国海東剣道協会の会長に就任した後、1993年1月25日社会団体登録を終え現在に至る。

(11) 被告が会長である韓国海東剣道協会は大韓海東剣道協会が教える剣法の内容(海東剣法概論に記述された心象剣法、双手刀、鋭刀、本国剣法、長白剣法、双剣、撃剣)外に双手剣法、外手剣法、左方剣法、右方剣法、外右剣法、外左剣法、夢卜剣法、飛鳶剣法など(主に心剣道の内容を成すことと見える)の剣法を一緒に教えており、一方現在国内には原告側の大韓海東剣道協会と被告側の韓国海東剣道協会以外の「国際海東剣道連盟」、「道法海東剣道会」、「韓国伝統海東剣道協会」、「海東心剣道協会」などの団体が海東剣道という名称を利用し各々その傘下に数十〜百余に至る体育道場を所属させて活動しており、原告は国内に160余個(200個以上だと主張したりする)、被告がやはり国内外をひっくるめて相当な数の体育道場をその所属道場にして運営されている。


▲ いまや海東剣道創設当時の歴史と誰がどんな剣法を作り上げたのかが明確になった。どうせ高句麗とは全然関係がないし、何人かの手によって最近作られた武術であるということだ。

それならキム・チョンホ氏が自分に武術を教えたと粘り強く主張する白頭山師匠は果して誰だろう? 初期に海東剣道を学んだ人々はキム・チョンホ総裁がたまに 「白頭山のチョン・ソンニョの話」をしたと回想する。逹磨大師が白頭山へ来てチョン・ソンニョに自分の腕を切って捧げて武術を伝授したというのだ。もちろん逹磨大師が隻腕だということは仏教係では認められていない偽りだ。

-- (中間省略) --




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